The gallbladder - a subsidiary body of the single-person accumulates bile and controlling its flow to the digestive tract. It is a muscular sac elongated pear-shaped and located in the right upper quadrant under the liver. Typically, the size of the gallbladder varies from 2 to 3 cm in width and from 7 to 10 cm long, and its capacity is about 50 mL.
The gallbladder is not an indispensable organ and if it is a function of removing the accumulation of bile passes to the duodenum.
The structure of the gallbladder
In the gallbladder there are three parts:
- The bottom is visible in the front part;
- The body - basically an extension portion located between the cystic duct and the bottom;
- Cervix - the narrow part, turning into the cystic duct length of 3-4 cm, through which the common bile duct.
Bile flows from the bladder into the duodenum, which is usually associated with the process of digestion. Empowered choleresis occurs when consuming fatty foods.
Control over the work of the gallbladder carries autonomic nervous system.
Located next to the liver, gall bladder is connected with it by a thin connective tissue. This explains the rapid spread of any inflammatory processes in the bladder, in the liver parenchyma.
Gallbladder wall multilayered and includes:
- Muscular frame;
- The inner layer (epithelium);
- The outer layer (serosa);
The blood supply to the gallbladder provide:
- Arterial - portal artery, extending from the right hepatic artery;
- Venous drainage - bile Vienna.
The functions of the gallbladder
The main functions of the gallbladder are:
- The accumulation and storage of bile. Bubble stores the incoming bile from the liver, and is capable of increasing its concentration for storing large amounts in a small space;
- Bile, which occurs as a response to food intake (neural and hormonal factors) through muscular contractions of its wall.
Diseases and Pathology of the gallbladder
By the development of many inflammatory diseases (eg, cholecystitis and cholangitis) can cause a long stagnation of bile, due to:
- Inflection of the gallbladder.
To one of the most common pathologies relates inflection gall bladder, which is formed, usually at the boundary of the body and the bottom of the bubble, and is often found in children of different ages. In cases of slight inflection, this pathology can not have any influence on the movement of bile and overall health.
Express or double folds of the gallbladder may cause dull, aching, long-term pain on the background of the feeling of heaviness in the right upper quadrant, which are often accompanied by nausea and a feeling of bitterness in the mouth.
Gallstone disease is one of the most common diseases of the gallbladder. The disease usually does not appear suddenly. Its development can take place several years while her subject not only to full-bodied and the elderly, but also young enough. The disease is usually diagnosed by ultrasound and X-ray examination.
Gallstones are formed from salts of cholesterol, bile acids and bilirubin. Causes of different stones. The most common are:
- Sedentary lifestyle;
- Rapid weight loss;
Symptoms such as a bitter taste in the mouth and heaviness in the right upper quadrant after eating in cholelithiasis particularly pronounced after eating pickled, salted and smoked foods and fatty foods.
Drug treatment is usually long, and drugs that dissolve the stones, to be taken for several years. This should create the conditions to prevent the development of new stones.
For the prevention of gallstone formation should:
- Avoid eating a heavy meal high in fat;
- Use low-calorie diet and increased physical activity in the presence of excess body weight;
- Reduce intake of cholesterol in the body;
- Avoid treating estrogen detection of gallstones.
Not all types of stones lend themselves to medical treatment and the most effective way to treat gallstones is to remove the gallbladder. With laparoscopic cholecystectomy is much less load on the cardiovascular and respiratory system as compared to other types of operations.
Removal of the gallbladder by laparoscopic cholecystectomy usually resolves without complications in all forms of cholelithiasis. Contraindications to surgery is a long gestation and coagulopathy.
As a rule, after the removal of the gallbladder to return to normal physical activities can be five to seven days.
After the operation is necessary to observe a special diet that reduces the risk of bile stasis. When diet after gallbladder removal categorically excluded fatty foods, alcohol, heavy, sharp, canned and fried foods. It is also important to ensure a sufficient level of salt and vitamin content.