The coccyx. General information
Tailbone or coccyx (Lat.) Is the final part of the human spine. There are 4 or 5 (in some cases) of the vertebrae, the size of which decreases in the direction from top to bottom that defines the triangular shape of the coccyx. His broad base is connected to the sacrum coccyx, its tip facing downwards.
On the coccygeal vertebrae I can note the presence of the vertebral body, subtle horns at 2 pieces, and transverse processes. In some cases, II vertebra can also be distinguished transverse processes, and the remaining vertebrae are rudimentary calf spongy bone substance.
In old age all the coccygeal vertebrae, except I, fused together. Most often this phenomenon is observed in men.
Attached to the coccyx thin PC muscle. It is a steam room, a quadrangular shape. The muscle extends from the ischium to the lateral edges and verhnekopchikovyh nizhnekresttsovyh vertebrae. Where intertwined with fibers rear beam ensures the mobility of the pelvic floor.
Coccygeal plexus, giving rise anococcygeal nerves, located at the beginning of the PC muscle.
The blood supply is carried out thanks to the coccyx middle sacral artery and its branches. Outflow of blood going through the patron vein.
Functions of the coccyx
Despite the fact that the coccyx - vestigial organ, it sufficiently fulfills important functions in the body:
- His anterior is the attachment of ligaments and muscles involved in the functioning of the distal intestine, urogenital system. In addition, some are attached to the coccyx muscle bundles of the gluteus maximus - a powerful extensor of the thigh;
- The coccyx is involved in the distribution of the physical burden on the anatomical structure of the pelvis, as well as the fulcrum when bending backward.
Damage to coccyx
The most frequent injuries coccyx - bruises and fractures:
- Coccyx injury is called a bruise surrounding soft tissue
. This injury is classified as light
. Most often it occurs in the fall
. First of all when injury patients complain about the fact that the coccyx pain
. If the fall resulted in the appearance of pain, you should consult a doctor immediately, because the consequences of the injury can be serious even though the pain may subside within a few hours after injury
. Quite often bruised tailbone without proper treatment becomes chronic
. In this case, the pain may occur suddenly, bringing discomfort, and just as suddenly disappear for weeks or even months
. Symptom as a bruise can also serve as a pointer to a bruised tailbone
. A patient with this injury is recommended bed rest and elimination of physical activity in any form
. Sitting also strongly discouraged, but in extreme cases when sitting can be used a special orthopedic pillow, which is a rubber circle
- Coccyx fracture occurs when you fall on the buttocks, as a result of violent shocks in case of damage as a result of a traffic accident
. The most common fractures occur in women, due to anatomical differences in the structure of the pelvis of both sexes, as well as in the elderly
. Fractures of the coccyx may be offset, and without it
. Most often, however, there is not even a fracture, and fracture-dislocation
. Symptoms of a fracture and dislocation at the same time quite similar
. Patients also complain that hurts the coccyx, the pain becomes more intense during the walk, at sharp movements and coughing
. Sitting in the correct position difficult in the affected area is often observed swelling, likely problems with defecation
. Outdoor palpation reveals abnormal mobility of the coccyx
. Accurate diagnosis can be made solely on the results of X-ray examination
. Treatment of coccyx fracture involves overlaying a special bus, which is a cotton-gauze circle
. Period worn tires (at least two weeks) must be accompanied by peace, recommended bed rest
. In some cases, appointed painkillers
. In order to help the body to quickly deal with a fracture, it is recommended supplementation of calcium, vitamins and collagen
. It will be useful as a special physiotherapy
. When fusion bone is difficult to resort to surgical intervention