The aortic arch is the curve of the aorta to the left at the level of the sternum with the transition through the left bronchus.
The structure and location of the aortic arch
Aortic arch goes into the descending aorta with a small bump up and bend back. Ahead there is a slight narrowing of the arc, which is called the aortic isthmus. This isthmus is located between the aortic arch and descending aorta.
The aortic arch is directed from the second to the left rib cartilage 3-4 thoracic vertebrae. In some cases, the branches of the aortic arch reach the brachiocephalic trunk and the right carotid artery, and may also be variants of development at which the compound of the branches of the aortic arch and two brachiocephalic trunk - right and left.
The aortic arch is connected to the three major vessels - the common carotid artery, subclavian artery and the brachiocephalic trunk. The largest vessel of 4 cm is brachiocephalic trunk. It departs from the aortic arch up at sternoclavicular joint and divides into two branches - the right carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. Under certain anatomical features of a person from the brachiocephalic vessel may deviate lower thyroid artery.
Congenital deformity of the aortic arch
In some cases, abnormal development of the aortic arch may see her congenital tortuosity, which is called deformation. This anomaly occurs in the development of 0, 4-0, 6% of patients with cardiovascular diseases and 3% of patients with aortic coarctation.
Congenital tortuosity of the aortic arch is expressed in the elongation, bend and pathological thinning of the vessel wall. In some cases, the aortic arch is sealed and has symptoms of stenosis (narrowing).
Causes of strain have been identified, but medical studies have shown that this anomaly begins in utero by a number of factors and genetic predisposition.
There are two basic types of deformation:
- Congenital deformity with lengthening and curves artery;
- Congenital deformity in which the aortic arch is sealed, and the walls of blood vessels are narrowed.
Later deformation can evolve into several defects:
- Vice with a bend between the carotid and innominate artery;
- Vice bend to the left carotid and subclavian arteries;
- Vice with a bend of the aorta at the site of the branch of the subclavian artery.
In the majority of cases during the deformation of the aortic arch circulatory disorders are not observed, but increases the load on the walls of blood vessels and can form an aortic aneurysm.
In a serious deformation of the aortic arch may occur compression of the esophagus, trachea and nerve trunks. For the treatment of aortic arch strain appointed a special medical course followed by surgery.
Diseases of the aortic arch
The main diseases of the aortic arch aneurysm and are hypoplasia.
An aneurysm of the aortic arch is a traumatic or atherosclerotic vascular lesions. Symptoms of aortic arch aneurysms are vascular lesions of the heart and brain, headache, pain in the chest, shortness of breath, severe throbbing in the chest, recurrent nerve palsy.
For the diagnosis of aneurysm held X-ray study and aortography, which allows you to set the rate of change of the aortic wall. Aortic arch aneurysm treated with surgical prosthetic aorta and its branches.
Hypoplasia of the aortic arch is malnutrition secondary elements aortic vascular and degenerative changes in the plastic shell, which lead to the interruption of the aortic isthmus.
Causes of hypoplasia of the aortic arch are hormonal disorders, birth defects, genetic predisposition, nervous disorders. Hypoplasia aortic arch can affect other arteries, including the functioning of the renal artery.
When serious violations caused by hypoplasia of the aorta, performed surgery. After the operation carried out partial correction of heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Then appointed medical treatment glycosides and diuretics.