Morel - marsupial fungus with a beautiful hat ovate-rounded, yellowish-brown color and a small cell that looks like a honeycomb. The stem is hollow, cylindrical shape, several shades lighter cap. In morel white flesh, which has a pleasant aroma and taste.
In nature there are three types of morels:
- Average or edible (Morchella esculenta);
- Conical (Morchella conica);
- Cap or hat Smorchkova (Verpa bohemica Schroet).
Cap the mushroom grows to 10 centimeters in diameter and 15 - in height. The foot can reach a thickness of 5 cm.
History and distribution
Morel mushrooms are very ancient. The first mention of them can be found in the writings of Theophrastus, Greek scholar belonging to the 4th century BC. In ancient Rome, these mushrooms are considered a delicacy, so cooking morels not trust just a servant, and they bring to the table in the most expensive and exquisite dishes.
Until now, in many countries of the world to the morels are treated with great reverence. In America, for example, they are the status of "royal mushrooms". Since the mid-19th century in France and Germany they are grown in gardens and parks under the apple trees. In Russia, morels grow in the wild all over the place, appearing on the light at the end of April - early May. Prefer mushrooms mixed and deciduous forests, like mossy ditches and edges, and cutting edge fields, vacant lots and old conflagration. In the south of Russia can be found even on the lawns, the gardens and orchards.
It was noted that morels prefer not grow on the same place, but botanists still speculated on what way morel mycelium "moved" to another place, and sometimes even disappear without a trace.
How to distinguish a false morel of this?
True morels are delicious edible mushrooms, but the false morels are poisonous. Fortunately, they can be easily distinguished from each other. This is done by means of a longitudinal incision along the body of the fungus. In the false morel cap is not attached to the leg and foot quilted and dense, whereas the true fungi hollow stem and bonnet merges with it.
Application of morels in cooking
In Russia, the morel is considered conditionally edible mushrooms and their taste data belong to the third category, despite the fact that in Europe they considered to be a delicacy. In America, for example, at the annual banquet dedicated to the American Congress of Mycology necessarily served boiled morels.
Before using this fungus is required to boil and drain the broth. Only then can you start making morels, stew them, fry or add to soup. Especially tasty morels in stewed or in sauces. In a separate dish can be served morels, stewed with sour cream, you can also use it as a filling for pies. Morels are not salted or pickled, they are dried and used as food only three months after drying. Keep in mind that dried mushrooms absorb moisture, so keep them in a dry place in cardboard boxes or paper bags, or they otsyreyut and zaplesneveyut.
Application of morels in folk medicine
Since ancient times, morels are used to treat nearsightedness and farsightedness, as well as rheumatism, and various diseases of the joints. They are shown to strengthen the immune system.
For therapeutic purposes, mushrooms recommend eating regularly for six months. Before use, mushrooms cleaned, soaked for one hour in water, then boiled and washed under running water.
The composition and caloric content of morels
The fresh morels contains approximately 3% of nitrogenous substances, many aromatics, and 1% sugar. Present in these polysaccharide called FD4. 100g morel contains 2, 9 g protein, 2 g of carbohydrates, and 0 4 g fat.
Calorie it is about 23 kcal per 100 g of product.
Due to the high content of toxins before cooking morel necessarily need to be dried or boiled. When used properly, harm to the body of the fungus is not.