Maize is an annual plant of the family grass, which is divided into 9 types: siliceous, sugar, burst, dent, poluzubovidnuyu, mealy, starchy, sugar, and filmy waxy.
Biological characteristics and origin of plants
Corn is the high annual plant which has a height of 6 m, the developed root system and forms a support stems roots, which do not allow the plant to fall.
Maize leaves large to 1 meter long and 10 cm wide. Male flowers are gathered in panicles plant and female - on the cob. One plant 2-3 cob length from 5 to 40 cm. Form corn grain is different, it can be stretched like wheat or cubic as other cereals. Each cob and 700 grains, the size and shape of which are different in different varieties of maize.
Cultivated plants corn was first cultivated in Mexico about 7 thousand. Years ago. In the state of Oaxaca have found the first grain of corn, which is dated 2700 BC While corncobs were several times lower.
Modern scientists are several theories about the origin of the plant:
- It is a selective corn plant that was derived from the wild maize in Mexico and Central America;
- corn - a plant that has been obtained by hybridization with a wild maize species other cereals;
- Mexican tribes cultivated plant is taken out for a few hundred years;
- corn originated as a hybrid of a wild maize closely related plants such as Tripsacum.
Scientists have found that the use of corn is high, and it has played an important role in the development of North and South America, as many American families owed their heyday is that of cereals.
Calorific value of corn
The use of corn is high, as this plant is the source of a whole range of useful elements. It is composed of starch, vitamin PP, B and C, as well as nutrients such as magnesium, phosphorus, copper, nickel, and potassium.
The corn cob contains up to 3% of fatty oil and 0 to 5% of essential oils, as well as ascorbic acid, stigmastirol, saponins glikozidopodobnye substances and pantothenic acid.
Calorific value of corn and its grain is different. In one cup of corn about 69 kcal. and 2 grams of fiber, and boiled beans - 88 kcal. 2, 3 g.kletchatki, and vitamin E, folic acid and ascorbic.
Caloric corn in one ear is 123 kcal., And 4 g of protein, 2 g fat and 21 g carbohydrate 5.
Useful properties of corn
Corn from the beginning of its existence in Latin America began to be used for medical purposes. Useful properties of maize have been proven by various scientific studies.
Corn silk is dried at a temperature of 40 degrees and is used as a medicament which contains ascorbic acid, essential oils, resins, vitamin K, as well as anti-inflammatory, diuretic and choleretic properties.
International medical studies found high health properties of corn and extract from it. In Russia and other European countries, a liquid extract of corn is used to treat hepatitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, urolithiasis and as a hemostatic drug.
The corn germ contains more than 50% fatty oil, which is created from the extract that is used as a dietary tool for the prevention of atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity treatment.
The corn oil contains approximately 80% fatty acid and 1 g of phosphate. These components are useful agents for the regulation of metabolic processes in the human body, as well as normalization of cholesterol metabolism.
Corn oil is prescribed to people with atherosclerosis, prone to thrombosis and having a weakened immune system.
Cooking and eating
Maize has a high palatability and great culinary possibilities. Ears of corn plants used for food, creating a variety of dishes. Canned corn used for soups, salads and pizza.
Of cornmeal cooked various cereals, puddings, cakes and other pastries. Due to high quality corn flour pastry becomes crumbly and delicious. Corn kernels may be employed as a garnish or a separate dish with a variety of drinks and yoghurts.
The Moldovan cuisine, this plant has spread in the early 17th century as a food for the poor, and later all categories evaluated favor of maize. At the moment of preparing her traditional Moldovan hominy, and used in soups, side dishes, cereals and confectionery.
On the basis of corn in Argentina are preparing many national dishes, including tamales, Locri and humita. In American culture corn gained widespread popularity as the main ingredient for making popcorn and corn dog. In Mexico, valued traditional national corn tortilla stuffed.
In China, maize appeared in the 17th century, and from it began to make the flour that goes to Chinese dumplings and cakes. These pastries were particularly fond of Chinese emperors. At present, China's corn prepare salads, side dishes and pastries.
Contraindications to the use of corn
Scientific research has found that the modified maize variety adversely affects the human body. Such a plant is protected from the pest, but is composed of a dangerous poison, which not only kills harmful insects, but also adversely affects all living beings. Currently, genetically modified variety of corn is prohibited in many countries.
Eating popcorn and other types of fast food corn can adversely affect people who are predisposed to obesity, allergies and metabolic disorders.
Do not use this confectionery cereals subject of dietary menus and holding a general cleansing of the body.