Classic cider - the wine of apple juice, which is produced by its fermentation without adding yeast. At first glance, everything is very simple - apples ferment, turned wine. But the ancient Norsemen, who invented this drink refers to its production of very carefully and used for this purpose the best varieties of apples that are grown in special apple orchards. Moreover, they used the sour, sweet and bitter varieties of apples in a certain proportion.
The most widely got cider in Spain, where Apple has always lacked. Spaniards believe that the apple wine they appeared because the Spanish sailors. For a long time they were at sea, and they did not have enough fresh water. Instead, they were drinking apple juice, which during a long journey itself turned into wine. This wine from apple juice uplifting and left his head clear.
In Spain, the cider is so fond of that use it instead of the water and believe in its medicinal properties, considering that it removes toxins from the body.
In Russia, the apple wine is also made. From reliable sources it is known that the Empress tasted it in 1890 and it was from him in admiration. However, during the Soviet era cider virtually disappeared.
In America, more commonly a strong apple wine called the Apple Jack.
According to statistics, by far the most common cider in France, and also in some areas of Spain, Switzerland, Germany and Austria.
How wine is made from apple juice?
Cider made in the same manner as any wine based on berries, except some specificity. For example, the apples should not be given to oxidize, so wine producers are constantly cleaned mill knives for cleaning vegetables. First the apples were crushed and squeezed juice, which for some time has to be insisted. After the juice is poured into wooden barrels, put them to one side and leave about 5 weeks of fermentation. Everything then ready cider. Store apple wine at a temperature just above zero. Fortress in cider about 5-8 turns. Before you pour it into bottles, it is pasteurized and clarified.
Traditionally, cider barrels made of oak, and each cover from the barrel make a special small hole. The hole for the washer drum, which must be tall and thin, otherwise it does not fit through the hole. All work washers doing a hand without the use of chemicals.
Today, cider is considered sparkling wine, and often it is cooked with different technologies. It happens that it is artificially enriched with carbon dioxide by champagne, cognac, or reinforce it to increase speeds of up to 9-10%. The higher alcohol is contained in the cider, the better it retains a large concentration of carbon dioxide.
Wine of apple juice is poured into a thick bottle and secondary fermentation, adding to it a solution of refined sugar. If you add 8 g of sugar, it turns out the weakest cider, 12 g - medium, 16 g - the strongest and sparkling cider. Rove wine in such bottles for several months, and then begin to riddling - put the bottle upside down almost vertically, and each day crank them around a vertical axis. This leads to the fact that yeast and the sediment collected on the tube bottom. Riddling process lasts about two months, after which the bottle was transferred to a cool place where spend degorzhirovanie - removal of sediment from cider.
Degorzhirovanie - the process is also quite interesting. Work takes a bottle neck with the left hand, it turns substantially horizontally and with the aid of forceps or hook pulls the plug until it is exposed to carbon dioxide with no eject seated thereon sediment. At this point, the worker must have time to quickly turn the bottle neck upwards, and then passes it to another worker for dosing.
Dosing occurs by topping up the resulting cider certain amount of liquor. It is done to make up for losses resulting degorzhirovaniya wine, as well as to impart strength and sweetness of wine.
Traditions and consumption of apple wine
It is believed that as a basis apple wine can easily compete with the grapes. In Spain, France and cider valued highly. Particularly famous for the production of cider Calvados French province where carefully kept the recipe secret of its production and transfer only by inheritance.
Still less and less in these countries wine from apple juice is used as an independent beverage. Increasingly, it was used as a base of apple brandy. To this end, the wine is distilled twice, and the resulting alcohol is infused apple wooden casks for at least two years.
But here in Europe, cider, on the contrary, is gaining popularity as it, first, cheaper champagne, and secondly, in taste is not inferior, but sometimes surpasses it.
Taste cider can be made a variety of - sweet, sour, dry. Much of this depends on the type of apples and proportions. You can drink apple wine all categories of citizens - from small children to old age (for children make a soft cider).
Often cider served during presentations and festive receptions as a substitute for champagne. For example, in Normandy, there is even the Order Fanciers cider. Each year, its members are clothed in medieval costumes and gather in small pubs - sidreriyah - tasting drink and admission of new members of the society.
Here are some traditions concerning the preparation and consumption of wine from apple juice:
- True gourmets respect only the cider, which is bottled by hand;
- Poured from a bottle only six glasses of cider, while the bartender raised his hand high in the air with a bottle and a glass of cider keeps the bottom;
- The last drops of cider drinkers necessarily throws on the floor.