Soya - a cultivated plant of the legume family. It is cultivated in Southern Europe, Asia, North and South America, South Africa, Australia and some islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Seeds of soybean are known as "soybean" and widely used in cooking more than four thousand years. His popularity has earned thanks to soybeans following:
- The high degree of productivity;
- High protein (50%), whose composition is similar with the proteins of animal origin (meat and milk);
- Ingredients rich in vitamins B, trace elements, polyunsaturated fatty acids;
- Ability to use as a therapeutic and preventive agent for a number of diseases;
- Absence in the low cholesterol and saturated fat percentage;
- Is the raw material basis for the production of the widest range of food products, the main ones are soy milk, soy meat, and others.
These properties allow the use of soy as an inexpensive, efficient and useful substitute for dairy products and meat. It is noteworthy that such products are often given preference not because of saving (although soy products, in some cases actually cheaper milk and meat), and based on other reasons (veganism, for example).
Soybeans are also included in the composition of feed for young animals with / farm animals.
Historians say that first began to cultivate soy in China, where she later came to Korea and Japan. Among the countries of Europe for the first time tasted the French soybeans in the late 18th century.
In our country, the first mention of soy are 40th years of the 17th century. They belong to the pen of Russian traveler B. Poyarkova, who visited the expedition in the area of the Sea of Okhotsk, described the features of this product. However, only in the late 19th century in Russia there was a practical interest in this culture.
Recently, the use of soy has become a cause for disputes, as more and more can be found in the composition of a product of genetically modified version of that culture.
Nutritional value, composition and caloric content of soybeans
The main component is a soy protein content of which, according to various authors, can vary while remaining within the range of 38 to 50%. The structure of the soy protein is not uniform, however, about 70% of them are well absorbed by the body.
Number of fat in soybeans may reach 27%, but the bar does not drop below 16%. On the content of soybean phospholipids bypasses other crop plants. Despite the relatively high content of saturated fatty acids (about 13-14%), their amounts are smaller than in animal fats, where it reaches 60%. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acids at this equals 87% of the total.
With soybeans fed irreplaceable linolenic acid, which is not synthesized by the body, as well as tocopherols, the number of which soybean oil is the champion.
Carbohydrates are presented in soy soluble sugars and polysaccharides. Their mass fraction is about 30 g per 100 g of product.
The beans of this plant also contains rare products - isoflavones have estrogenic activity.
Micro and macro elements are part of soybean seed phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, sodium, iron, boron, manganese, aluminum, nickel, copper, molybdenum, iodine and cobalt.
Vitamins contained in soybeans: E, B6, PP, B3, B1, B2, and choline, folic acid and biotin.
Calorie soybeans varies depending on the degree of maturity of the bean. Thus, 100 g of green soybean contains 147 calories, and mature - already 446 Kcal per 100 g
Increased calorie soy beans in adulthood due to the fact that the seeds have accumulated a sufficient amount of protein and carbohydrates.
Useful properties of soy
Despite the fact that the beans of the plants have an enormous range of nutrients, the use of soy is not unique.
The content of high-grade protein compounds, nutritionally not inferior to animal protein, combined with low content of saturated fatty acids than the so-rich meat and dairy products. From this point of view, soy is an excellent basis for the diet.
Phospholipids are part of soybeans, participate in the regeneration of cell membranes and enhance the detoxification ability of liver cells, performing also the function of antioxidants. Furthermore, phospholipids can reduce the need for patients with diabetes, insulin, significantly reduce the likelihood of degenerative changes in the nerve cells and muscles and strengthens blood vessels.
The content of lecithin contributes to the acceleration of the metabolism of fat and cholesterol, it helps to burn excess fat in the liver faster. In addition, the phospholipid has lipotropic and choleretic action.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of soybean are peculiar precursors hormone-like substances which inhibit the accumulation of cholesterol in the vessel wall, which in turn could lead to atherosclerosis.
Colossal tocopherol content in soybeans increases the protective ability of the body, slows the aging process and increases the potency.
The surprising properties of soy have radioprotective effect allows you to use it as a means of binding heavy metal ions in the body.
Experts say that eating soy greatly reduces the risk of obesity, allergies, osteoporosis and heart disease. The benefits of soy is invaluable for patients after myocardial infarction, suffering from atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary artery disease.
Hazardous properties of soy
Soy is not always, unfortunately, it brings only benefits to the body.
Complete replacement of animal protein with soy leads to the development of the thyroid gland failure and stunting among children. Studies have shown that soy often causes hormonal changes in the body. In this regard, products based on it is contraindicated in pregnant women.
Excessive consumption of soy products gives rise rhinitis, dermatitis, asthma, diarrhea, eczema and other diseases.
It should be attentive to fans of soybeans, tend to form kidney stones, because the use of the product is able to provoke a recurrence of the disease and worsen the overall state of the kidneys.