First aid for shock
In various diseases or injuries the person may be a shock. Clinically is characterized by a state of shock as acute vascular insufficiency resulting from hypovolemia. As a result of circulatory disorders occur oxygen starvation of tissues. If this process will continue for a long time, the tissue may die due to lack of oxygen.
In total, there are three degrees of shock:
- 1 degree - the patient's general condition is satisfactory, blood pressure is more than 100 mm, the pulse - 90-100 beats per minute;
- 2 degree - there pale skin, cold sweat, rapid pulse (120-140 beats per minute), the blood pressure - 70-80 mm;
- 3 degree - the patient's condition is very serious, the pulse reaches 160 beats per minute, and the maximum blood pressure less than 70 mm.
Of great importance in the provision of first aid for shock prevention plays. For this purpose it is necessary to reassure the victim, stop bleeding, warm and provide some exciting drink (coffee, hot tea, alcohol).
Causes of shock
Causes of shock may be different (trauma, burns, adoption of any chemicals or drugs), but with a certain stage of development mechanism similar shock
. The human body, in order to protect the vital organs (heart, brain, kidneys, lungs) tries vigorously to supply them with oxygen
. The blood volume is reduced, which leads to activation of chemicals
. First released noradrenaline
. First, the heart begins to pump blood strongly, filtration and blood flow in the kidneys decreases, fluid in the body is delayed
. It is not the main systems of the body virtually cease supplying blood
. This process is called centralization of circulation
. In fact, this protective process of the body has a purpose - to save human life
. However, if you can not bring people to this state as quickly as possible, it is provided with a lethal outcome
Anaphylactic shock. first aid
Anaphylaxis - the worst complication of allergic reaction. Typically, anaphylactic shock develops in patients suffering from any allergic disease or re lechyaschihsya any drug.
First aid for anaphylactic shock must be provided immediately. Because of drugs intramuscularly or subcutaneously administered 0, 5-1 ml of 0, 1% solution of adrenaline. Concurrently intramuscularly administered 60 mg of prednisolone or hydrocortisone 125 mg.
To prevent vascular collapse, subcutaneously can enter kordiamina 2 ml or 2 ml of a 10% solution of caffeine.
When providing first aid for shock patient is required to be translated into a horizontal position, turn his head to the side and hold the lower jaw in order to avoid suffocation vomit. Above the injection site is necessary to impose a tourniquet, and to the very place you can make ice. After that, the patient should be hospitalized immediately. Transporting the patient is only possible after symptom control shock and normalize blood pressure.
Hemorrhagic shock. first aid
Hemorrhages often lead to the development of shock. Hemorrhagic shock is a condition associated with acute blood loss 1 liter or more.
In obstetric practice hemorrhagic shock can occur during pregnancy or childbirth, the postpartum period. The main causes of severe bleeding include: ectopic pregnancy, genital trauma, rupture of ovarian abortion, uterine bleeding, some form of uterine fibroids.
Heavy blood loss is usually accompanied by bleeding disorders. The peculiarity of these hemorrhages is that they are abundant and sudden, often combined with extragenital pathology, preeclampsia, generic and other pathologies.
First aid for hemorrhagic shock involves primarily the elimination of the phenomena of acute respiratory failure. If there is the tongue must be mechanically free the patient's mouth using suction.
Further, first aid for shock involves anesthesia patient with medication. To this end, use of narcotic analgesics: leksir, Tramal, Fortran. For non-narcotic analgesics are analginum and baralgin. When necessary to prevent heart failure and other serious violations, to initiate a rapid infusion therapy.
Traumatic shock. first aid
Traumatic shock develops as a result of injury and accompanied by a sharp violation of the nervous regulation of vital processes. Often accompanied by a traumatic shock disorder of metabolism, respiration and hemodynamics.
Contribute to the emergence of a strong shock pain, interstitial, intracavitary, and external bleeding, traumatic compression of the chest, massive bruises and soft tissue compression, etc.
First aid for traumatic shock involves stopping bleeding (if possible) by imposing tight bandages, tourniquets. Administered intravenously transfusion 0, 5-1, 5 L of 6% solution poliglyukina, 1, 5 l of an 8% solution zhelatinol. If the patient had low blood pressure (less than 60 mm), it is necessary to start intra-arterial transfusion. Intra-arterial transfusion is indicated for the prevention of sudden death, as well as signs of heart failure.
When providing first aid to the patient with traumatic shock should definitely hold a local anesthetic. If necessary, carry out artificial respiration, the breathing passages of vomit, blood and mucus. In the case of cardiac arrest first aid for shock involves chest compressions, and in the event of cardiac fibrillation - defibrillation.
Burn shock. first aid
Burn shock is a complication of burns occurs when you burn with damage to more than 5% of the surface of the body and is caused by violation of the water balance and blood microcirculation. Unlike other types of shock, burn it is difficult to recognize in the early period. Therefore, after the onset of obvious symptoms first aid burn shock must be carried out immediately.
During the first aid treatment of burn shock treatment affected the surface is not carried out. It should impose special anti antiseptic and a bandage if available.
First aid for shock is reduced to immediate infusion of isotonic sodium chloride solution or polyglucin. In order to improve the microcirculation injected corticosteroids (prednisone, hydrocortisone) and reopoligljukin.
For the purpose of analgesia and relieve mental stress when providing first aid for shock administered droperidol, promedol seduksen.