Brief description of the disease
Vasculitis - inflammation of blood vessel walls. Depending on what kind of vessels affected, such isolated species vasculitis:
- Phlebitis - causes inflammation of the walls of the veins.
- Arterioles - inflammation of the small arteries.
- Artery - lesions of the arterial walls.
- Capillaries - inflammation of the capillaries.
There are cases where several vessels is affected, it is called systemic vasculitis.
Separately isolated hemorrhagic vasculitis, affects the blood vessels of the skin, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, joints.
The causes of the disease
Vasculitis can be primary, emerging as a distinct disease, and it can occur as a complication of certain diseases.
Causes Primary vasculitis not established until now and secondary vasculitis may occur with chronic, acute infections, the vaccination, cancer, strong heating or cooling thermal injuries of the skin, including sunburn. Vasculitis can develop after trauma or exposure to biological poisons, chemicals.
All these negative factors can lead to vascular tissue structure that will change, and the body begins to reject it, seeing as foreign, to produce antibodies.
The symptoms of vasculitis
The symptoms of vasculitis in the beginning of the disease in most similar: fever, "galloping" temperature - it is increased, then decreased, with each rise in temperature means that opened a new inflammation.
The characteristic symptom of vasculitis - skin haemorrhage. After the defeat of the skin goes into the muscles, joints, nerves, which is why the further development of the disease symptoms of vasculitis vary depending on vessels of inflamed organ.
When nodular periarteritis patient feels pain in the muscles, sharp pains in the abdomen, it appears nausea, vomiting, fever.
When temporal giant cell arteritis felt weakness, headaches throbbing pain, swelling there in the temporal region.
When aortoarteriit numb and sore limbs, back pain, stomach, disturbed vision, the patient faints.
With skin rash in the form of small symmetrical bruises begins hemorrhagic vasculitis. The rash forms on the buttocks, around the joints, on the extensor surfaces of hands and feet. Rarely seen a rash on the face, feet and hands, torso. These features put a primary diagnosis of vasculitis in children.
The second characteristic symptom of hemorrhagic vasculitis - damage of the joints accompanied by pain and / or inflammation is observed in more than half of cases. Suffer usually large joints of damage sustained in violation of functionality are often not observed.
The third important symptom of hemorrhagic vasculitis - abdominal pain. Developed before skin lesions and joints and in time. Attacks of pain may last for several days. There are also complaints of nausea, poor stool, vomiting, fever, in rare cases, open stomach and intestinal bleeding.
Diagnosis of the disease
To diagnose systemic vasculitis, it is necessary to analyze blood, urine, x-ray of the sternum, to investigate vessels.
To determine hemorrhagic vasculitis also do blood and urine tests, X-rays of the sternum. In addition, the patient is prescribed abdominal ultrasound if signs of kidney damage - that and renal ultrasonography. For the diagnosis of vasculitis in children may further assign dynamic kidney scan, since It may be an anomaly in the development of urinary tract, accumulation and excretory renal function.
At the stage of diagnosis, it is important to distinguish between systemic vasculitis infections involving similar rashes, eliminate thrombocytopenic purpura.
Abdominal pain may also occur in acute appendicitis, perforated ulcer, intestinal obstruction, ulcerative colitis - all these diseases before treatment of vasculitis should be deleted. Also exclude glomerulonephritis and lupus erythematosus.
The treatment of vasculitis
For the treatment of vasculitis prescribe drugs that suppress the production of antibodies that reduce the sensitivity of tissues: cytostatics, steroids.
Also, some forms of hemorrhagic vasculitis or systemic treatments may be given to clean the blood - hemosorption and plasmapheresis.
If the disease is mild, is in remission, vasculitis is treated only in the designated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, such as Motrin, or indomethacin.
Additionally, the treatment of vasculitis may appoint agents, reduces the permeability of blood vessels and blood clotting - to prevent thrombus formation.
Prevention of illness
For the prevention of vasculitis in children and adults should avoid self-medication and unjustified vaccination, tempered, to carry out measures to eliminate the negative impact of external factors, for example, to avoid overheating, hypothermia, long exposure to the sun, avoid direct contact with pesticides, etc.