An infectious disease, occurring with lesions of the lymphatic system of the intestine, severe intoxication and bacteremia roseolous rash, enlargement of the liver, spleen, and in some cases, called enteritis typhoid.
Causes and mechanisms of disease
The causative agent of typhoid fever is typhoid bacillus. It multiplies in the intestinal lumen and then through his mucous membrane begins to penetrate the lymphatic system (Peyer's patches, solitary follicles, regional lymph nodes). Subsequently, the microbes from the lymph nodes fall into the circulatory system, resulting in the development of bacteremia. At the death of the pathogen of typhoid release toxins, causing the development of severe intoxication of the patient.
The epidemiology of typhoid fever
The source of infection is sick and bacilli carrier, which release the pathogen of typhoid fever in the urine and feces. Particularly dangerous typhoid bacillus carriers working in institutions and enterprises supply.
The germ enters the body through the mouth. There are the following ways of infection of typhoid fever:
An important role in the transfer of infections play fly.
For typhoid fever receptive people of any age, but most often it affects school-age children. After it is formed by a specific and rather strong immunity, so the repeated cases of typhoid fever practically not observed.
Typhoid fever: symptoms
The incubation period, ie, period from infection to onset of symptoms of typhoid fever is on average two weeks.
The disease begins to develop gradually with increase in body temperature. The temperature rises in steps and reaches 40 degrees C. The patient is growing malaise, appetite disappears, there constipation, disturbed sleep.
On palpation of the abdomen reveals an enlarged liver and spleen, rumbling in the right iliac abdomen. Language coated with a thick layer of plaque, Patriotic. He edges often seen prints from the teeth.
A week from the beginning of the first symptoms of typhoid patient begin to appear stupor, drowsiness, delirium.
If typhoid is observed relative bradycardia - a mismatch pulse rate available to the patient's temperature. This symptom of typhoid fever is caused by severe intoxication and defeat of the cardiovascular system.
On 9 - 10 hours from the onset of the disease in the skin of the back, chest and abdomen appear small, pale pink roseolous rash. Elements rash slightly raised above the skin and disappear with pressure on them.
After 10 - 15 days from the beginning of the fever symptoms of typhoid are gradually beginning to fade. Body temperature drops politically (gently) and a period of convalescence (recovery and restoration of the body).
Complications of typhoid fever
Complications of typhoid fever usually are rare and most often seen in young children and the elderly. They are associated with ulcerative process in the intestine perforation ulcer and / or bleeding of them.
Tests for typhoid
Diagnosis of typhoid fever, especially in the early stages of the disease, presents certain difficulties. To confirm the diagnosis using laboratory diagnostic methods. At the very beginning of the disease is carried out blood culture (blood culture). For this analysis to typhoid fever from a vein of the patient taking 10 0 ml of blood, and in compliance with the measures of aseptic transfer it to a sterile glass vial containing bile broth.
Since the beginning of the second week of illness, setting reaction produces Vidal. This analysis typhoid fever is more valuable in repeated his conduct when it is possible to identify the rise in antibody titer.
With 15 days of onset conduct bacteriological seeding feces and urine.
In the early days of the disease in the general analysis of blood revealed moderate leukocytosis (increased number of white blood cells), which later replaced by leukopenia (reduction in white blood cell count).
Thus, tests for typhoid, allow doctors to promptly and accurately correct diagnosis and prescribe the proper treatment to the patient.
Typhoid fever: Treatment
When typhoid fever patients is very important compliance of strict bed rest, which should start from the first days of the disease and continue for at least two weeks after the normalization of body temperature.
Drug treatment of typhoid fever is carried out with the use of antibiotics. The most common use chloramphenicol or ampicillin. Antibiotic therapy continues after the temperature starts to decline.
In severe intoxication spend detoxication therapy (intravenous saline solutions, glucose, vitamins).
An important role in the proper treatment of typhoid plays dietetics. Patients were allowed pureed soups, dairy products, jelly, vegetable purees, boiled eggs, steam cutlets, croutons of white bread. The drink should be plentiful, which helps reduce the severity of symptoms of intoxication.
Typhoid fever: prevention
In the fight against the spread of the disease plays a big role well organized work of the Medical Service, which oversees the food and water. It is necessary to conduct regular surveys on the carriage of typhoid bacillus employees childcare facilities, water intake, catering and the like, which is an important measure for preventing typhoid.
All patients should be isolated until they are cured. Extract them from the hospital can be made only after the negative results of bacteriological examinations triple feces and urine.
At the outbreak of the disease is essential that a current, and after hospitalization or recovery, final disinfection.
Personal prevention of typhoid fever is the strict observance of normal sanitary and hygienic measures - hand washing after using the toilet and before eating, wash fruits and vegetables before eating. You can not drink unboiled water from unknown sources.