Tubulointerstitial nephritis - a kidney disease, occurring mainly affecting the interstitial tissue and kidney tubules. Furthermore in the inflammatory process of this disease are retracted and all the other structures of the kidney tissue. Tubulointerstitial nephritis may be acute or chronic.
Causes of the disease may be different, but most of the occurrence of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis is associated with the use of certain drugs (antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics and others.). Other causes that lead to the development of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis are some immune diseases, poisoning by heavy metals, ethanol, ethylene glycol.
Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis may be the outcome of the acute form of the disease. But most often it occurs without prior acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Its causes are:
- Domestic, industrial or medication intoxication;
- Exposure to ionizing radiation;
- Metabolic disorders;
- Immune changes.
Often, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis occurs in people who abuse non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Tubulointerstitial nephritis Symptoms
In acute tubulointerstitial nephritis patients complain of fever, itchy skin rash, pain in the lumbar region, increased weakness and fatigue. In acute tubulointerstitial nephritis the symptoms described above, very quickly begin to join and symptoms of acute renal failure: increased blood pressure, nocturia, polyuria, or oligoanuria.
In the early stages of the chronic form of tubulointerstitial nephritis symptoms often absent. They appear only when the inflammatory process leads to a significant disruption of the concentration of renal function and development of chronic renal failure.
Tubulointerstitial nephritis in children
Tubulointerstitial nephritis in children is quite a common condition. Most researchers believe that the disease is immunoallergic origin, as usually occurs in children and adolescents who have a genetic predisposition to dysfunction of the macrophage-phagocytosis system and changes in immunological tolerance.
Very often, tubulointerstitial nephritis in children occurs on a different background dismetabolic nephropathy (14% of cases). In addition, the appearance of the disease in children contributes to the frequent and sometimes uncontrolled treatment of sulfanilamide preparations and beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin, cefazolin and others.).
For the prevention of children tubulointerstitial nephritis it is very important not to self-medicate, take any drugs only on prescription in the presence of clear indications to them. In addition, it should be timely identification of children and treat any infectious, allergic, immune diseases and metabolic disorders.
Tubulointerstitial nephritis: Treatment
The main goal of treatment tubulointerstitial nephritis is to identify and eliminate the causes that led to the development of the disease. When tubulointerstitial nephritis is possible to use short courses of glucocorticoid therapy and / or cytostatics. Be sure the correction of violations of water-electrolyte balance. Equally important in the treatment given to tubulointerstitial nephritis and diet therapy (Table №7). With the development of end-stage renal failure demonstrated hemodialysis and transplantation of kidneys.