Tick borne encephalitis
Brief description of the disease
Tick-borne encephalitis - a viral disease, which is caused by ticks, leading to the defeat of the central and peripheral nervous system, causing severe complications, ending in paralysis and death.
Ticks spread in forest and forest-steppe areas with a temperate climate. There are several types of these parasites, but as a rule, tick-borne encephalitis occurs after bites Ixodes Persulcatus (the taiga tick) or Ixodes Ricinus (European forest mite). The first is more common in Asia, the second - in the European region. In Russia, the prevention of tick-borne encephalitis is particularly relevant for the inhabitants of Siberia, the Far East, the Urals and central regions of the country.
For tick-borne encephalitis is characterized by a strict seasonality. Cases of tick-borne encephalitis are recorded in the spring and summer months, when the increased activity of disease vectors. With regard to infection, it occurs immediately after being bitten by blood-sucking and then victim. Moreover, encephalitis virus may be transmitted through the digestive tract in the use of raw milk from sick cows.
Symptoms of encephalitis
The average incubation period is 7-14 days of infection. In the initial stages of the tick-borne encephalitis manifested by the following symptoms:
- numbness of the face and neck;
- weakness in the limbs and muscles;
- increase in body temperature up to 40
- sudden headache;
- nausea, vomiting;
- sleep disorders.
In the acute phase in patients with tick-borne encephalitis is marked redness of the neck, face and chest, as well as injection of the sclera and conjunctivitis. People are concerned about severe pains in the limbs and muscles, especially where further manifest paralysis and paresis. In addition, early in the disease tick-borne encephalitis virus can cause loss of consciousness and common sense of stupefaction. With the development of the disease, these symptoms often develop into a state close to coma.
The clinical picture
Currently, experts distinguish 5 forms of tick-borne encephalitis, each of which is characterized by a leading syndrome disease.
- feverish - duration of fever is 3-5 days. This form is characterized by a favorable course and a speedy recovery, of course, if the patient was vaccinated on time against tick-borne encephalitis. The main signs of the disease are: nausea, headache, weakness;
- meningeal - the most common form of infection. Patients suffering from severe headaches, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, pain in the eyes. A person becomes sluggish and inhibited, the unpleasant symptoms persist throughout the period of treatment and may hold even at normal temperatures. In samples of cerebrospinal fluid revealed a large amount of protein;
- meningoencephalitic - characterized by severe. Tick-borne encephalitis leads to agitation, delirium, hallucinations, disorientation, seizures. Patients quickly develop paresis, cerebellar syndrome, myoclonus. If it affects the autonomic centers disease syndrome provokes gastric bleeding with abundant bloody vomiting;
- poliomieliticheskaya - diagnosed in almost 30% of affected people. They complain of fatigue, malaise, sudden onset of weakness in a limb (in the future it is very likely to be susceptible to movement disorders). Frequent and sluggish paresis cervicobrachial localization. Symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis are progressing rapidly. If vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis late, at the end of 2-3 weeks in patients with muscle atrophy;
- poliradikulonevriticheskaya - characterized by lesions of the peripheral nerves and roots, sensitivity disorders, flaccid paralysis of legs, which may spread to the muscles of the arms and torso.
Emergency aid for tick-borne encephalitis.
At the first suspicions of tick-borne encephalitis patient should be urgently hospitalized in the infectious department. Treatment is carried out on the general principles in compliance with bed rest and maximum limitation of mobility to minimize the pain stimuli. Because the virus encephalitis causes functional disorders of the liver, stomach and intestines - in patients assigned a strict diet, as well as vitamins B and C to recover the vitamin balance.
Causal treatment is reduced to the intended homologous gamma-globulin which administered intramuscularly once per day. The full force of vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis virus starts to act within 12-24 hours: reduced body temperature, headaches disappear, improves overall health.
Current treatments involve the use of encephalitis interferon preparations which are administered intramuscularly, intravenously or endolymphatic.
Prevention of tick-borne encephalitis
During outings in spring and summer, you need to be aware of the elementary caution. To protect against ticks, wear clothing that covers the arms and legs, use repellents. There is a more effective way to defeat the tick-borne encephalitis - vaccination, which allowed for adults and children (from the age of 12 months) after examination by a physician.
If you still could tick bite their prey, it should be gently remove the parasite and to apply to the infectious diseases hospital for research on tick-borne encephalitis infection. Remember that the serum is effective only during the first days after the bite, so do not put off a visit to the doctor and wait for the unpleasant symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis. Believe me, after the appearance of the disease will be much more difficult to get rid of.