What is syphilis?
Syphilis - this is one of the most common infections, sexually transmitted diseases. The causative agent of the disease is pale treponema (T. Pallidum). Outside the host organism, it can last for a few minutes, so the transmission of syphilis occurs only through close contact between healthy and sick man. Newborn babies can "catch" the disease is still in the womb (called congenital syphilis). Since the pathogen enters the body through the mucous membranes of, it is quite possible transfer by household using common household items and toiletries. The most common place of transition of syphilis are the genitals, mouth and throat. Within a few hours the spirochete affects regional lymph nodes and then spreads through them all the vital organs and systems.
The etiology of syphilis
Syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum, which in most cases has a spiral shape
. However, not so rare it atypical variants
. Due to polymorphism of the pathogen, significantly hampered the timely diagnosis of syphilis and its further treatment
. Furthermore, when the coincidence of a number of factors can go into treponema encysted form has excellent resistance to external factors and as a consequence, a greater survival
. For this reason, any signs of syphilis should be considered as a basis for immediate treatment to the venereal disease
. Self-treatment is unacceptable, because without analyzing and determining the type of microbe patients at risk to bring the case before the serious complications
. Note also that many antibiotics are most effective is to encystment stage, which is just another reason to appeal to specialized clinics
As we mentioned above, the symptoms of syphilis occur after close contact with an infected person. Especially dangerous in this respect the sick, the infection which caused the appearance of papules and chancre, which are clusters of treponem place. The contagiousness of the urine is not yet proven, but it is known that a small number of pathogens in the saliva is collected. It is also possible infection through mother's milk or through semen, the latter case is not necessarily the presence of external signs of syphilis on the genitals.
Symptoms of syphilis and the clinical picture of the disease
The initial stage of syphilis is the same with the first chancre and sifilom. On average, they occur 3-4 weeks after infection at the site of the introduction of treponemes. First, in this part of the skin or mucous membranes showed little red spot, which is modified over time, and takes the form of papules, transforming into an ulcer or erosion. No pain on palpation of the patient does not feel the chancre.
Symptoms of syphilis appear within 6-7 weeks after infection. They are quite varied and there are a much larger area than the signs of syphilis in the primary period. We note the most characteristic features of the symptoms of syphilis:
- skin lesions complemented by evidence of violations in the work of other organs and systems;
- undulating course and the presence of latent (asymptomatic) period;
- skin rashes have a bright color and small size, but capture a large area;
- rashes tend to fade, but then again recur, and each time they are increasingly a tendency to group, eventually forming roseola - inflammatory sites diameter up to 1 cm;
- secondary syphilis often leads to papular syphiloderm - skin lesions that resolve themselves, but leave clearly visible pigmented area.
Lesions of other organs and systems syphilis expressed as fever, loss of appetite, general weakness, nausea, headache, increase in regional lymph nodes. If treatment for syphilis was conducted and it was not enough, the secondary form enters tertiary after 3-4 years after infection.
At this stage, the symptoms of syphilis patients' tertiary syphilides - bumps and gums which are formed on the skin and on the surface of the bones, internal organs, in the subcutaneous tissue and the nervous system. With the disappearance of numerous they cause destructive changes in organs and tissues. Tertiary syphilis can last for several years, however, it is worth noting that as the medical care this form of syphilis is found less and less.
Congenital syphilis is transmitted from sick mother treponem the penetration through the placenta to the fetus. Infection with syphilis can occur both during the time of conception, and much later. Regardless of the time of infection, tissue lesions are observed only in the VI-VII month of pregnancy, so the active prevention of syphilis in the early stages will help to give birth to a healthy baby. The ability to transmit pathogens through the father's sperm is not yet proven, so all the preventive measures usually relate to the expectant mother. These include: identification of female patients in the early stages, a full account of pregnancy, monitoring of treatment of infected persons. In order to prevent development of adverse changes in a compulsory regular examinations of pregnant women for the presence of treponemes and external signs of congenital syphilis.
Diagnosis of syphilis
In the diagnosis of syphilis to detect pathogens used a microscopic technique that allows detection of treponemes in tissue samples. This method of diagnosis of syphilis is applicable, if a person develops secondary syphilis. For a primary form of more relevant serology (Wasserman reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the detection of specific antibodies in the blood of a sick person.
Treatment of syphilis
There is now a huge amount of different materials through which developed the most effective mechanisms for the treatment of syphilis, including the later stages of infection. Preventive measures include the administration of drugs penicillin for all persons who had contact with an infected person.
If you put a definite positive diagnosis of syphilis, physicians should identify the tolerance of the patient to the action of penicillin, define a list of current medications and their dosage. Today, treatment for syphilis is performed using benzathine penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline (used in case of intolerance of penicillin). The duration of treatment is 2-3 weeks, depending on the stage of infection and related complications.