General characteristics of the disease
Stuttering is a speech disorder that is characterized by frequent repetition or prolongation of words, syllables or sounds, and signs of the disease are frequent stops or hesitancy in speech, leading to the rupture of its rhythmic flow.
Simply put, stuttering - a violation of smoothness and rhythm of speech, causing difficulties in oral communication.
To was diagnosed with "stuttering" symptoms should be significant. Hitches and glitches in the normal rhythm of speech speaking people from different disorders of sensation in stutterers muscle tension, loss of control over the speech organs, feelings of shame and fear.
Stuttering usually begins between the ages of 2 to 5 years and can last for months or years. This speech disorders are more prone to boys than girls, there were cases of the disease immediately with several family members. Stuttering in children, unlike adults, can pass spontaneously.
Almost all stutterers characterized by the ability to speak fluently when they are emotionally passionate about reading with someone in one voice, singing, are alone or when changing the manner of speaking, breathing, your voice.
Stuttering begins to manifest itself when communicating in difficult situations when, for example, will speak to the audience, in a hurry, in an effort to get approval or focusing on himself and his speech disorder.
For the majority of stammering stuttering characterized by extension or repetition of initial syllables or sounds it is also possible a full stop at the beginning of a syllable or word. In addition, in parallel with the halting can be observed such "secondary" symptoms such as involuntary movements of the limbs, neck, face or insert extraneous sounds or words. The first signs of stuttering in children appear as harshness and unsure speech, frequent repetitions of words, the visible tension child, sometimes there are cases of silence and complete rejection of oral communication.
Causes of stuttering
Stuttering in children can be caused by defects in the nervous system, or be the result of neuroses.
In the first case the cause of speech impairment may be a genetic predisposition, hard proceeding pregnancy, trauma during birth or frequent disease in infancy. Despite the fact that apparently these children seem quite healthy, neurological examination may reveal they have increased convulsive readiness, changes in reflexes, increased intracranial pressure.
Stuttering in children in the second cause neuroses, stress-related, strong fatigue, fear. The most susceptible to this type of speech violations nervous and impressionable children, and the signs of the disease may be aggravated by mental stress or emotional arousal.
In rare cases, the cause of stuttering in children could be a desire to imitate the child stutterers relative, forced retraining of left-hander or right-hander in infectious diseases.
Stuttering in adults occurs infrequently, usually this is preceded by a strong trauma. In some cases, the cause of stuttering in adults becomes fear of speaking (logofobiya), which first manifested itself in verbal communication, and then transformed into the fear that accompanies even the thought of the upcoming conversation.
The mechanism of stuttering
Effective correction of stuttering and its treatment require an understanding of what constitutes the violation in physiological terms. Stuttering in adults as well as children - it is muscle spasms of the vocal apparatus (mandible, soft palate, lips, tongue) that occur periodically.
So, clonic stuttering, which is the involuntary repetition of individual syllables and sounds, due to several short-term muscle contractions. While as a tonic stuttering (speech delay) causes prolonged contraction of muscles strong. Sometimes muscle spasms of the vocal apparatus accompanied by spasms of the limbs and face.
In the brain, there are voice, auditory and associative centers, coordinated work which forms a circle of speech. The discontinuities are based stuttering speech terms which occur periodically as a result of varying the speed of the speech centers. This is the reason most often occurs stuttering in children aged 2-5 years, when the synchronous communication between the centers being formed.
Modern medicine explains the mechanism of stuttering as follows. Changes in the nervous system leads to overstimulation Voice Center (Broca's area), the speed of which increases, which provokes a temporary interruption of the speech range. Overexcitation transferred to the regions of the cortex responsible for motor activity, thus causing muscle spasms. After the fact of stuttering voice center to relax the rules and voice circle is closed again. Stuttering occurs most often on consonants because when overexcited nerve impulses from the frequency response close to these sounds, especially deaf.
Treatment of stuttering
The question of how to get rid of stuttering, placed almost always when one family member is faced with this speech disorder.
Stuttering Treatment today is uneven because experts disagree on the methods of treatment. To the correction of stuttering was productive, usually an integrated approach that combines several techniques, among which are:
- speech therapy;
Methods of correction of stuttering developed by the authors, based on their understanding of the causes of the disease. Some treat stuttering as a complex neurotic disorder as the result of failure of nerve processes in the brain. Others see the cause of this complex of neurotic disorders in the locked reflex wrong speech, which arose as a result of speech difficulties of various origins. For the third treatment of stuttering is the elimination of disharmonious personality development, as well as speech and general dizontogeneza. Fourth see the cause of stuttering only in organic lesions of the central nervous system.
Today there are many methods of treatment of stuttering, but does not give an absolute guarantee of any of them. In some cases, the question of how to get rid of stuttering may not occur if the time to prevent disease by creating a child and sparing the most peaceful living conditions.