Squint (strabismus, strabismus) - this is a wrong position of the eyes, caused by dysfunction of the eye muscles in which the eyes look in different directions.
Each eye is focused in one direction, but the brain sends different images of what can easily make everyone, closing alternately the right, then the left eye. In cortical visual analyzer brain combines images of both eyes, getting a single three-dimensional image - so runs binocular vision is normal. If you squint your eyes are not focused on a single point, and the images are so different that the visual analyzer is not able to merge them into a single image.
When strabismus brain suppresses the image obtained unhealthy, squinting eye, and the eye gradually excluded from the general view of the process. Develop a condition called amblyopia, which manifests itself in an increasing reduction of vision due to the suppression of the brain function of the eyes. Eye suppressed function is called amblyopic, or "lazy." This process has developed rapidly in the case of strabismus in children, because they have the brain quickly adapts to changing conditions. Amblyopia is reversible if urgent and energetic measures, otherwise the eyes may cause blindness and is not fully restore their functions.
In adult amblyopia is also developing in case of strabismus, but much slower. The vision in the damaged eye drops slowly, but due to defocus and two transmission too much different from the picture, there is an effect of doubling.
Causes of strabismus
Strabismus can be congenital or acquired. In the first case, the cause of strabismus is a genetic predisposition, congenital malformations of the eye muscles or diseases of the mother during pregnancy.
Among the causes of acquired strabismus often called the disease of the central nervous system; injuries, both physical and mental; blurred vision one eye; infectious diseases that are uncommon cause of strabismus in children.
Types of strabismus
Strabismus is divided into two kinds: friendly and paralytic.
- Concomitant strabismus is equally evident when looking in all directions, it involves both eyes, both deviate from the norm for the same distance. Developing friendly strabismus in children more often than adults. The most frequent cause of strabismus in this case is a progressive eye disease.
- Paralytic strabismus caused by paralysis of one of the eye muscles, resulting from developmental abnormalities, trauma, diseases of the nervous system or blood vessels. In this case, one eye usually struck. Paralytic strabismus in children and in adults occurs equally often.
By the nature of strabismus deviation is:
- Convergent - eyes directed toward the nose
- Divergent - the eye is directed to temple
- Vertical - eye directed either downwards or upwards
- Mixed - it combines the features of several forms
Stability display Strabismus may be constant or intermittent.
Symptoms of strabismus
The main symptom is the appearance of a squint eye, a visible squint. This is not always a reliable indication, for example, strabismus in children under one year are often imaginary. Imaginary squint due to the structural features of the eye slits in young children, which is why the orbit unfolding outwards, resulting in the impression of a divergent squint. Strabismus in children under one year, you can suspect the true when one eye is constantly denied, showing signs of paralytic strabismus, but it may simply be because the colorful toys all the time there are only one side of the crib.
In addition to the apparent deviation from the position of one eye, symptoms of strabismus are forced position of the head (constant slope in one direction or rotation), which is compensated at double vision, squinting, headaches and dizziness, as well as unilateral decreased vision.
Diagnosis of strabismus
Diagnosis of strabismus is held during a complete ophthalmic examination, currently used for this purpose a special computer equipment. Carry out tests on binocular vision, check deviation, refraction, and the mobility of the eyeballs in all directions. When diagnosed strabismus necessarily neurological examination.
Treatment of strabismus
Correction of strabismus in some cases possible therapeutic agents, but the most radical and effective method is the surgical treatment of strabismus. The choice of method depends on the cause of strabismus, as well as its appearance. Because of the risk of developing amblyopia and loss of vision in one eye, which will inevitably entail a loss of vision, and the second, a healthy eye, strabismus treatment should be initiated as early as possible.
If the cause of strabismus in eye diseases (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and others.), Should be treated first and foremost the disease. Often, the correction of visual acuity and measures taken to eliminate amblyopia are sufficient to correct strabismus, especially strabismus in children, as in childhood the nervous system is very sensitive and easily rebuilt.
To use optical correction wearing special glasses or lenses, sealing the healthy eye, which causes the eye to the activity of violations, special exercises to stimulate the right job "lazy" muscle. Eyeglasses can be successfully used even in the case of strabismus in children under one year. You need to know that the non-surgical treatment of strabismus require persistent, consistent and long-term application for several months or even years.
In case of failure of conservative methods of correcting a squint, as well as some forms of which can not be conservative correction surgical treatment of strabismus. Type of surgery is determined by the ophthalmologist depending on the nature of the disease strabismus. The operation is usually performed under local anesthesia, only with strabismus in children, general anesthesia is used. As a rule, on the day of surgery, the patient can be discharged.
In the treatment of strabismus surgery is required to consolidate the results, and still requires active measures for training the eye muscles, for the prevention or elimination of existing amblyopia. Thus, to eliminate strabismus surgery alone is not enough, we need a comprehensive approach. This approach is quite amenable to correction of strabismus.