General information about the disease
Blood poisoning (sepsis) - an acute or chronic disease that occurs as a result of penetration into the body of bacterial, viral or fungal flora. Many people believe that the blood of sepsis develops after severe festering wounds, but in reality there are many other "gates" through which an infection can enter the bloodstream, and very often it turns out that the true cause of the disease and find out you can not.
The main danger of sepsis is that it can occur very quickly, sometimes like lightning. In practice, sepsis, treatment is started too late, often leads to the death of a person within a few hours after the first symptoms. Of course, such effects are of great concern in the scientific community, which is why hundreds of researchers from around the world working to find new methods that would allow time to identify sepsis in children and adults, and would minimize the development of serious complications.
Causation of disease
As agents of sepsis are the most different organisms: staphylococcus, meningococcus, pneumococcus, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Klebsiella, fungi such as Candida, viruses gerpetimorfnoy group. It is worth noting that the development of sepsis has less to do with the properties of pathogens themselves as to the state of the human body and its immunity. Reduction of the safety barriers leads to the fact that our security system can not localize in time and harmful pathogens especially prevent the ingress of various organs.
If you talk about the most common methods of infection sepsis, it is worth noting that they are dependent on the type of the specific pathogen. For each of them has its own features and epidemiological conditions. Stand out only cases where patients develop nosocomial sepsis, symptoms of which sometimes manifest themselves even after inhalation of poorly purified air in the wards (60% of the samples revealed potentially dangerous micro-organisms). You can also select other ways of infection, determining the main symptoms of sepsis:
- percutaneous sepsis;
- blood poisoning, which occurs as a result of surgical and diagnostic procedures.
Identification of "gates" through which penetrated sepsis, is of great importance for the successful treatment of patients. Early diagnosis of sepsis allows time to detect infection, separate it from the case short of finding microbes in the blood and strengthen the body's defense system.
As we said above, for the development of sepsis must be subject to certain conditions, in particular:
- the presence of the primary tumor (it must be connected to the circulatory system or lymphatic vessels);
- repeated penetration of pathogens in the blood;
- formation of secondary lesions, which subsequently also deliver pathogens;
- inability to provide the necessary protection and provoke an immune response against harmful microbes.
Only if all these conditions are met and the patient has appropriate clinical signs of infection, doctors diagnose sepsis blood. The development of sepsis is triggered by serious diseases (diabetes, cancer tumors, rickets, HIV, birth defects of the immune system), therapeutic interventions, trauma, prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs, radiotherapy and other factors.
Symptoms of sepsis
Complaints of patients are very diverse, but should focus on the following symptoms of sepsis:
- altered mental status of the patient (euphoria or, on the contrary, apathy);
- tired, indifferent gaze;
- pale skin;
- hollowness of the cheeks;
- giperemirovanost person;
- excessive sweating;
- petechial hemorrhages in the form of stripes and spots on the surface of the forearms and shins.
In addition, sepsis may occur with herpes on the lips, bleeding of mucous membranes of the mouth, dyspnoea, seals and pustules on the skin. Despite the abundance of the symptoms of sepsis, fever, chills and sweating are the main features, which can detect sepsis blood. Attacks chills meet the massive exit of toxins from the foci of inflammation in the blood, after which patients are always the temperature rises and there is perspiration. Often people have several times a day to change underwear, which is literally soaked with sweat. Note that in any suspected sepsis, treatment should begin as soon as possible, because the infection is extremely dangerous and can lead to death.
Diagnosis of sepsis
In the diagnosis of sepsis in patients with blood samples taken from the source of the inflammation. In the future of the samples taken are trying to identify the pathogen, and this requires multiple crops and prolonged incubation. On the success of this procedure is influenced by many factors. In particular, physicians are often negative because of the earlier antimicrobial therapy, or as a result of slow growth in the number of pathogens. In order to avoid incorrect conclusions, blood tests must be confirmed by bacteriological examination of materials and careful inspection of lesions on the skin and mucous membranes.
Treatment of sepsis
Effective treatment of sepsis is one of the most important problems of modern medicine. In fact, it is no different from the treatment of other infectious processes, but doctors must necessarily take into account the high risk of death and of developing serious complications. Gives priority to the following activities:
- fighting intoxication;
- antimalware microflora;
- stimulation of immune-biological body's reserves;
- correction of the vital systems and organs;
- symptomatic treatment.
Patients with sepsis is assigned to diet and recommended complete rest. Status inflammatory focus is constantly monitored for timely prevention of acute reactions. Patients received large doses of antibiotics, in severe cases - corticosteroids. Also sepsis patients blood plasma transfusions are administered gamma globulin and glucose. With the development of dysbiosis and other undesirable effects take symptomatic agents. If improvement is not observed, the doctors are considering surgery. In some cases it is really necessary, because if the experts fluctuate too long, sepsis in children and adults can be fatal. Surgery includes: opening of abscesses, dressing vein thrombophlebitis, amputation and other similar events.
Sepsis of newborn
The incidence of neonatal sepsis is 1-8 cases per 1000. The mortality rate is quite high (13-50%), so if in any doubt sepsis, treatment and diagnosis should be carried out as quickly as possible. In high-risk groups fall into premature babies, as in their case, the disease can develop at lightning speed due to weakened immunity.
Sepsis enters the body of the child in different ways. Early forms of sepsis is usually explained transplatsentranym penetration and infection by hematogenous or by contact with infected vaginal flora during childbirth. Late onset neonatal sepsis is also associated with infection with vaginal microflora, but for some obscure reason, he appears much later (2-3 weeks of age). Possible activation of nosocomial form of the disease, when pathogens enter the blood stream as a result of non-compliance with sanitary rules and the accompanying development of severe disease.
Treatment of neonatal sepsis takes into account the age of the patients and carried out only under the supervision of experienced professionals, which define a set of products and procedures necessary to preserve the life of the child.