The first official mention of the disease scarlet fever were more than four centuries ago. The name of the disease comes from Latin and literally means "bright red", apparently because the most obvious symptom of scarlet fever - a characteristic red rash.
The most likely age of the patients - and after two to seven years. Scarlet fever in children in the age range of up to two years is very rare, because children's bodies are still being protected from the penetration of infection maternal antibodies. Also, there are rare cases of scarlet fever in adults. It should be noted that in comparison with other childhood diseases that are usually transferred into adulthood hard enough, scarlet fever proceeds relatively easily.
In the pre-school age group (after contact with a carrier of the virus), the probability of infection with scarlet fever in children is more than 40 percent. To belong to a particular risk immunocompromised children suffering from allergic diseases, hypovitaminosis, as well as long-term are in a situation of high stress. Symptoms of scarlet fever in children in this group are most pronounced, and the disease carries much heavier.
Causes of scarlet fever
The causative agent of scarlet fever (a special type of streptococcal infection) is passed through the airways when exposed person to person by droplet infection. Sometimes the virus can be transmitted by direct contact method (through contaminated food, toys, clothes and so on. N.). Infection of scarlet fever in adults most often occurs through the circulatory system when pathogen enters the bloodstream through small abrasions and scratches on the skin.
Symptoms of scarlet fever
In order not to miss the time to start the treatment of scarlet fever should be closely monitored for symptoms of illness in time to differentiate it from other viral infections.
In most cases, scarlet fever progresses rapidly, usually all the possible symptoms of the disease can be seen already in the first days of the onset of the disease.
The earliest symptoms of scarlet fever in children are fever (body temperature rises to the level of 38-40 degrees), pain in the throat. The child becomes inactive, sluggish, complaining about aches all over the body and refuses to eat. Rare but probably satellites of this state are repeated vomiting and diarrhea.
Often at the end of the first day of illness (sometimes on the second day) on the skin of the chest and neck of the patient appear small red dot. The rash is spreading rapidly in the face and body. Characterized by a significant loss of nasolabial triangle, stands out for its sharply defined boundaries from the rest of the face. The rash on the body are usually located on the lateral surfaces of the trunk and in the folds of the physiological body.
The rash of scarlet fever in a child is unbearable itching, skin becomes hot and dry to the touch. Eruptions are about a week after onset of illness, leaving behind a strong scaling of the skin, which is the surface of the feet and the palms peels whole layers. For normal skin of the patient returned no sooner than two to three weeks.
Another obvious symptom of scarlet fever in a child who can not be overlooked, is the appearance of the tongue. At the very beginning of the disease tongue is covered with a thick layer of whitish-brown plaque, which disappears after a few days, and opens a bright crimson surface.
Scarlet fever in almost all cases is accompanied by tonsillitis, t. To. Both of these diseases are caused by a single infectious agent.
Types of scarlet fever
Scarlet fever disease can occur in five different forms:
- Moderate severity
The last two species without timely treatment of scarlet fever pose a real threat to the life of the patient. Risk of death is not in the scarlet fever and, in severe complications, she leaves behind.
The complications of scarlet fever
Intrigue of the disease scarlet fever is that strep serving the cause of infection can not only destroy the cells of the human body, but also skillfully under them "masquerade." Thus the behavior of the virus disables the immune system, which together with the invading organism aggressor begins to actively destroy their own cells the same.
The most common complications that arise directly during the course of scarlet fever are the destruction of the circulatory and nervous system. Next on the list of complications appear otitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis. Much less often affects the kidneys, heart and liver.
Severe and life-threatening complications occur after the patient recovers from scarlet fever. These complications include the following diseases: a serious heart valve damage, brain, kidneys, joints, and so on. D.
The occurrence of severe complications directly related to the violation of the recommended treatment of scarlet fever or wrong chosen tactics of the patient in the course of the disease.
Treatment for scarlet fever
When disease is mild, the patient is allowed to undergo treatment of scarlet fever at home (with the possibility of strict isolation from the rest of the family).
Mandatory rules for the successful treatment of scarlet fever in any form is compliance with all recommendations of your doctor prescribed. That is the main factor that will allow not only to quickly recover from scarlet fever, but also to avoid further occurrence of severe complications.