Reflux esophagitis - chronic nature of this disease, which is a pathological casting of gastric contents into the esophagus. Since in the mucosa is not protected against such corrosive substances from contact with them epithelial damage arise from further inflammation and thus painful.
Causes of reflux oesophagitis
The main cause of reflux esophagitis is a violation of or a reduction in the muscle tone of the esophageal sphincter. Because of this, he always remains fully or partially open, allowing stomach contents to freely enter into it. This disorder can occur due to nervous overloads, increased abdominal pressure, or food and chemical factors.
The second cause of reflux esophagitis in food is hernia of the diaphragm hole. Through this extension (hernia) during increased pressure in the abdominal cavity (for example, when lifting heavy loads), half of the stomach with the contents can penetrate into the chest cavity.
Reflux esophagitis may also occur due to:
- Surgical interventions on food hole in the diaphragm, or near it (if vagotomy, resection of gastric cardia department esophagogastrostomy, gastrectomy, kastrektomii);
- Gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori;
- Sphincter deficiency during obesity;
- Drug capable of lowering the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter;
- Pilorospazme or pyloroduodenal stenosis;
- Duodenal ulcer and stomach.
Symptoms of reflux esophagitis
Symptoms of reflux esophagitis can occur in the form of:
- Heartburn. Heartburn is the most common symptom of reflux esophagitis (seen in 83% of patients). The cause of heartburn is prolonged contact with acid gastric mucosa in the esophagus. Strengthen heartburn may noncompliance diet slopes, horizontal position, alcohol, carbonated drinks and physical stress.
- Belching, worse after eating or carbonated beverages.
- Regurgitation of food, which increases during exercise.
- Violations during swallowing.
- Pain behind the breastbone or in the epigastric region. These pains may occur shortly after a meal, increases during the slopes and in the horizontal position.
- Sensation of a lump in the throat during swallowing, and pain in the lower jaw and ear. These symptoms of reflux esophagitis occur much less frequently above symptoms.
Erosive reflux esophagitis
Erosive reflux esophagitis very deeply affects the mucosa of the esophagus. With this type of esophagitis formed ulcers and erosions of the mucous wall of the esophagus. Erosive reflux esophagitis has several stages:
- The first stage is characterized by the formation of small individual erosions in the lower part;
- During the second stage is gradually increased until the affected area one third of the esophagus;
- The third stage is characterized by the formation of a chronic ulcer in the esophagus.
To aggravate the situation with erosive reflux esophagitis can because of eating foods with high acidity (citrus fruits, milk products and acidic juices), caffeine, smoking, alcohol, and certain medications (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: aspirin, paracetamol, dipyrone).
If a long time to heal erosive reflux esophagitis, can cause serious complications:
bleeding (vomiting red blood or "coffee grounds"), scars on the walls of the mucosa, because of which the esophagus can be narrowed (stenosis).
Catarrhal reflux esophagitis
At catarrhal reflux esophagitis affected the upper layer of the esophageal mucosa. During endoscopy is detected in the form of edema and hyperemia of the mucous wall of the esophagus.
Catarrhal reflux esophagitis is characterized by pain along the entire length of the esophagus and at the point of transition into the stomach, feelings of rawness Breast, dysphagia. These symptoms appear during a meal or immediately after a meal. Also, there may be heartburn, belching and regurgitation with air.
Treatment of reflux oesophagitis
By the treatment of reflux oesophagitis should be approached comprehensively: taking medication and diet.
In the treatment of reflux esophagitis should:
- stop smoking;
- normalize body weight;
- raise the head end of the bed;
- avoid stress on your abdominals, not work in a tilted position, do not wear tight belts or body;
- exclude the use of drugs, which tend to lower the tone of the esophageal sphincter (antidepressants, progesterone, theophylline, calcium channel blockers, nitrates).
Diet for reflux esophagitis
Diet for reflux esophagitis is:
- avoiding overeating and eating should be no later than three or four hours before bedtime;
- avoiding the use of products that can reduce the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter (chocolate, coffee, pepper, garlic, onions);
- avoiding very cold or very hot, spicy foods;
- Limitation themselves in products that enhance gas formation.