General characteristics of the disease
Prostate cancer or prostate cancer - malignant disease caused by a hormonal imbalance in the body of the man, and in particular elevated levels of testosterone.
Symptoms of prostate cancer is most often diagnosed in men older than 55 years. Excluding reserve one of the most aggressive forms of prostate cancer - prostate sarcoma. It can occur in young men.
The causes of prostate cancer to date authentically understood. It is believed that the increase in testosterone levels and the formation of cancerous nodes - obvious symptoms of prostate cancer - associated with disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary system of man. They lead to a total failure in the synthesis of hormones and the formation of abnormal cells. But the exact cause of these disorders medicine is not known.
Among the factors that provoke the development of prostate cancer but age also include a genetic predisposition to the disease, the use of large amounts of animal fats, unfavorable environmental conditions and the presence of a man with chronic BPH.
Prostate cancer is characterized by a slow current. Usually, since the formation of tumor metastases before the development of prostate cancer takes at least 10 years. More susceptible to other African-American men, the least prone to prostate cancer Asians.
Symptoms of prostate cancer
The early development of the disease is almost asymptomatic. With the growth of tumor start to show the first symptoms of prostate cancer - urinary problems. It may be difficult or palpitations, depending on the location and size of the tumor. In some forms of prostate cancer in a patient develops acute urinary retention.
In the propagation of the tumor outside the body of prostate cancer may be associated with urinary incontinence, shortness of stool, blood in the stool. Symptoms of prostate cancer with metastases also include renal failure caused by tumor invasion into the mouth of the ureter.
In the later stages of prostate cancer symptoms are caused by the massive spread of metastases in bone, lymph nodes, liver, lungs. Consequently, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer can be a strong pain, limited mobility, swelling, exhaustion and anemia.
Diagnosis of prostate cancer
The preliminary diagnosis "prostate cancer" is established on the basis of the patient's complaints and the results of a digital rectal examination. It held urologist in case of nodes in the prostate patient is sent for further examination.
The next step in the diagnosis of prostate cancer - a test for prostate specific antigen (PSA). The increased concentration of the specific protein in the blood of men - one of the symptoms of prostate cancer. In a normal PSA level should not exceed 4 ng / ml.
Using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) can get an accurate idea of the size, shape and location of the tumor. The final diagnosis "prostate cancer" is established on the basis of biopsies conducted by introducing an ultrasonic probe with a needle through the patient's anus.
To determine the stage of prostate cancer conducted additional tests: ultrasound, CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis and lymph nodes, chest X-ray, bone scan computer.
Stage prostate cancer
Depending on the extent of metastatic prostate cancer are 4 stage disease.
I and stage II prostate cancer are characterized by the localization of the tumor within the prostate. At stage III prostate cancer tumor metastasizes to the nearest lymph nodes, organs and bones of the pelvis. For stage IV prostate cancer is characterized by extensive metastasis to distant organs or lymph nodes.
In addition to the classification of prostate cancer by stage, there is also a literal TNM system for differentiating tumors. «T» represents the size of the tumor, «N» - the presence of metastasis of prostate cancer to regional lymph nodes, and «M» - metastasis to other organs.
Treatment for prostate cancer
In step prostate cancer when the tumor is within the body, the main role is played surgery. Prostate cancer at an early stage docked radical prostatectomy - complete removal of the prostate and nearby lymph nodes.
With the high risk of recurrence of prostate cancer the patient is sent to the post-operative external beam irradiation. Besides it in the treatment of prostate cancer at stage I and II is also used brachytherapy - local radioactive ray irradiation granules.
In the treatment of prostate cancer with metastases basic method - hormone therapy. Its purpose - to reduce the maximum level of testosterone in the male and thereby halt the progression of prostate cancer.
Hormone therapy for prostate cancer can be surgically with complete removal of the testes (orchiectomy) or medical. The second method of castration men held by injecting drugs that block the production of the pituitary gland gormonov- testosterone stimulant. The maximum hormonal blockade in the treatment of prostate cancer is achieved by an integrated application of both methods.
Hormone therapy for prostate cancer can take up to 2 years, and only in the case of insensitivity of the tumor to the drug to patients with metastatic prostate cancer is directed to chemotherapy. It may be oral or injectable.
Strong pain - one of the most common complications of prostate cancer with metastases. A common practice in palliative (relieves) treatment of prostate cancer - the appointment of analgesics, from simple to drugs prescription drug group, the so-called opiates.