General characteristics of the disease
Parkinsonism - a neurological syndrome, the main symptom of which is a violation of the voluntary movements. Parkinson's syndrome occurs in a number of neurological diseases, and always accompanied by trembling limbs, stiffness of muscles and slowness of movement varying degrees of severity.
Depending on the etiology of the disease distinguish between primary or idiopathic parkinsonism and secondary or symptomatic form of Parkinson's syndrome. In the first case, the disease is caused by the progressive death of dopamine neurons in the human central nervous system. They are responsible for the inhibition of motor activity, and its deficiency leads to a disorder of motor function of the body.
Secondary parkinsonism syndrome is triggered by external factors: drugs, brain injuries, infections, etc.
Parkinsonism - one of the most common diseases of the elderly. It was first described in 1817 and named in honor of John. Parkinson. After 80 years of Parkinson's syndrome is diagnosed approximately every 5th person on the planet. The increase in life expectancy in developed countries leads to a further increase in the statistical number of patients with Parkinson's disease.
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Tremor, he's involuntary trembling of the limbs - one of the most striking symptoms of Parkinson's disease. During random motion tremor disappears and reappears when the motor passivity of the patient.
Another important symptom of Parkinson's disease - a stiff, she muscle stiffness. The disease is manifested by increased muscle tone of skeletal muscles. Because it perform any motion requires additional efforts. Muscle stiffness accompanied stoop. There is even an informal name for the posture of a patient with Parkinson's syndrome - "pose asylum" due to a change in reflexes responsible for upright posture.
Additional symptoms of Parkinson's disease are considered to oligo - and bradykinesia (slowness and the lack of movement), depletion of body language, imbalance.
The primary parkinsonism in the elderly can lead to violations of salivation, swallowing, monotone voice, and in rare cases, dementia (dementia). The last named parkinsonian symptoms usually manifest at a later stage of the disease.
All symptom of the disease leads to difficulties in carrying out everyday activities, delivering significant inconvenience and disappears only during sleep the patient.
Types of Parkinsonism
According to the standard classification of the disease was isolated vascular parkinsonism, as well as toxic, drugs, and post-traumatic postentsefaliticheskogo kinds of diseases.
Vascular parkinsonism is provoked by vascular pathologies. Unlike other kinds of diseases when it is not in the patient periods of no tremor. Involuntary muscle trembling in vascular parkinsonism provoke subacute or acute cerebrovascular accidents. In the case of deterioration of the disease can develop into a stroke.
Vascular parkinsonism - one of the most rare forms of the disease. Much more common types of toxic drugs and diseases.
Toxic parkinsonism occurs against a background of chronic or acute poisoning by heavy metals, toxic gases or drugs.
The drug triggers Parkinson receiving medications such as antipsychotics.
Post-traumatic Parkinson's is caused by damage to the structure of the brain and is the most common among boxers. One subspecies of parkinsonism - Martlanda syndrome, characterized by degenerative changes in the brain.
Postentsefaliticheskogo parkinsonism has an infectious etiology. It occurs due to damage to the upper brain stem at an epidemic encephalitis. One of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease this type - oculomotor disturbances: unintentional rolling of eyes, etc.
Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease
Tremor and other violations of motor activity are already evident in the death of a significant number of motor neurons. At this stage of disease diagnosis does not cause difficulties. Although none of the symptoms of parkinsonism is not pathognomonic signs typical exclusively for this disease. Therefore, the final diagnosis is established only after prolonged observation of patients and improve his condition under the influence of anticholinergics.
An early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is based on the fixing of minimum changes in the voice of the patient caused by dysfunction of the muscles of the larynx.
Treatment of Parkinson's disease
The scheme treatment of parkinsonism is especially individual for each patient. For relief of the syndrome type of drug is usually sufficient to cancel a course of medications. Treatment of Parkinson's disease involves the vascular type of surgical correction of the cerebral circulation by bypass surgery.
Part of compulsory medical treatment of Parkinson's disease of any kind is the appointment of L-Dopa drugs, anticholinergics, etc. Drug treatment of Parkinson's disease only helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease and slow its progression.
Therapy of Parkinsonism lifetime, so the possibility of side effects: constipation, dry mouth, general weakness, cardiac arrhythmia, disorders of memory and so forth. With the lack of effectiveness of conservative treatment of Parkinson's disease brain neurostimulation applied. For this purpose under the patient's skin in the chest area implanted neurostimulator, which is connected to the electrodes to the brain.
For radical treatment of Parkinson's disease include severe degree as electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation by a magnetic field, and the transplantation of stem cells and embryonic tissues of the patient.