Pancreatonecrosis - a complication of severe disease such as acute pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). As a rule, the mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer is 40-70%, and it is only under the condition that patients begin to heal in a timely manner using the most advanced medical techniques.
For necrotizing pancreatitis characterized extinction any portion or all of the pancreas. This occurs due to exposure to tissue specific enzymes which itself generates the pancreas in combination with an infectious process, peritonitis and other exacerbations.
Causes of pancreatic necrosis
According to statistics, about 70% of patients with pancreatic necrosis for a long time in an excessive amount of alcoholic drink. Another 30% of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer previously suffered from gallstones.
Thus, the most common causes of pancreatic necrosis are:
- alcohol abuse;
- regular overeating, abuse too greasy or fried food;
- severe viral and infectious diseases;
- peptic ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer;
- transferred before surgery or abdominal trauma.
Today pancreatic necrosis is one of the most dangerous diseases of the abdominal cavity, which is suffering not only the pancreas but also disrupted other digestive organs.
During the progression of the disease is the first swelling the pancreas, after which it appeared necrotic tissue sections. If time does not diagnose pancreatic necrosis and begin immediate treatment, the process of pancreatic necrosis is often added as well abscess.
Stages of development of pancreatic necrosis
The development of this severe disease occurs in three stages:
- In the first phase of development of pancreatic necrosis occurs toxemia. At this point in the patient's blood toxins appear having bacterial origin. In this case, the blood is not necessarily the presence of microbes that produce these same bacteria.
- An abscess is formed in the pancreas in the second stage of pancreatic necrosis. Often the abscess is formed and surrounding organs.
- The third stage in the tissues of the pancreas, as well as in the retroperitoneal tissue suppurative changes occur.
Symptoms of pancreatic necrosis
The most important symptom of pancreatic necrosis is a sharp pain in the left upper quadrant, which gives the shoulder, side and back, and sometimes the heart. The pain is constant, but it may subside a bit, especially if you take a horizontal position and press the knees to the stomach. The nature of pain depends on the flow of pancreatic necrosis, its causes and forms:
- 6% of patients describe the pain as moderate;
- 10% due to severe pain in a state of collapse;
- 40% of patients experiencing acute pain;
- 44% described the pain as a very strong, almost unbearable.
Another integral symptom of pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic cancer is the vomiting, which, incidentally, does not bring relief to the patient. The continuous emesis in a patient occurs dehydration.
Since in the blood plasma of the patient pancreatic necrosis observed increased concentrations of vasoactive components, another indirect symptom is extended reddening of the face. But when the patient enters a state of collapse, skin it, on the contrary, turn pale.
In this disease increases in blood levels of elastase, which in excessive amounts tend to destroy blood vessels, which contributes to bleeding in the digestive tract. The consequence of destruction of blood vessels and necrotic events in the pancreas are the spots on the buttocks blue-violet color. They can also be seen on the anterior abdominal wall, the sides and around the navel.
This is not all the symptoms of pancreatic necrosis. For example, when examining the patient in the pleural, peritoneal cavity, and pericardial effusion can be detected.
Treatment of pancreatic necrosis
Prognosis of the disease depends on adequate and timely treatment of pancreatic necrosis, as well as on the degree of destruction of the pancreas. Of great importance in the successful treatment of the disease, early diagnosis plays. Mostly pancreatic pancreas in patients unable to diagnose the first step.
As treatment of pancreatic necrosis in the first stage is used medicines by which locks the pancreas. Surgery for pancreatic necrosis at the first stage of development is not appropriate, because it is impossible to clearly identify exactly which portion of the pancreas underwent necrosis.
In order to avoid various purulent processes in addition to the patient drugs that block the pancreas, prescribe antiseptic and anti-bacterial drugs as well as immunostimulants.
With timely and proper treatment of pancreatic necrosis its progression can be stopped at an early stage of development without any serious complications. However, much more likely to develop inflammation, and destroys the pancreas itself. Then it is advisable to conduct operations in pancreatic necrosis, which involves removing damaged pancreatic tissue. Surgery for pancreatic necrosis is very distressing to the patient and the surgeon is also associated with certain risks, so it resorted to only in extreme cases. Often intoxication occurs when many authorities simply refuse to work.
Survive in pancreonecrosis manage less than half of patients. If all the same someone dropped the winning ticket, then throughout the rest of his life to this man must be very careful about their health. All excesses must impose a life taboo. The food should be consumed only stewed or steamed dishes fractional portions of 5-6 times a day. All food should be neutral temperature - too hot or cold foods irritate the stomach and helps revitalize the pancreas. Fatty foods are also forbidden, as it is a long time to digest and unnecessarily strains the pancreas. Prohibited use all salty, sweet and smoked, as such food helps inflammation.
In the food can be eaten dried bread, boiled vegetables, dairy products, lean meat, light soups and porridge on the water. Forever should forget about fresh fruits and vegetables, mayonnaise, spices, chocolate, soft bread, soft drinks, milk, canned food and various alcohol.