General characteristics of the disease
Multiple sclerosis - is a serious, progressive disease with many of the lesions of the central nervous system.
There is a classification by type of disease. According to her distinguish malignant and benign forms of multiple sclerosis, as well as a special kind of disease - optica or Devic's disease.
The course of MS is considered to be benign, if after 15 years from the manifestation of the first symptoms of multiple sclerosis, the patient no signs of disability, despite the absence of specific treatment.
When a malignant form of the disease course of multiple sclerosis is characterized by rapid progression and can lead to death in 3-6 months.
Patients with multiple sclerosis most rare form - Devic's disease suffer from selective destruction of the optic nerves. The disease is not always fatal, but it is growing rapidly in the blindness of one or both eyes, and behind her are increasing symptoms of myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord).
The causes of multiple sclerosis
To date, significant cause of multiple sclerosis is not revealed. There is a hypothesis about the multifactorial etiology of the disease. Her supporters are among the most likely causes of multiple sclerosis combined effect of genetic and environmental factors.
In favor of the genetic nature of the disease indicates that multiple sclerosis is most common in people in certain regions of the world, particularly in Scotland, Denmark, the Nordic countries and among the white population of the US population.
The environment, as one of the possible causes of multiple sclerosis, is considered in connection with data on the impact of endogenous factors on human health before puberty. The risk of multiple sclerosis is reduced if the person left the area at high risk of the disease before the onset of adolescence.
Heredity - still one of the probable causes of multiple sclerosis. The risk of violence in cases of multiple sclerosis in the 1-3 degree of kinship is 2-5%. However, the gene responsible for the disease, and was not found.
Potential hazards are considered as herpes viruses that trigger the body's autoimmune response in patients with multiple sclerosis. There are also data on the effect of hormones that suppress the immune system, as one of the possible causes of multiple sclerosis.
However, we must admit that all these theories are without sufficient scientific basis.
Symptoms of multiple sclerosis
Early symptoms of MS include fatigue, unsteadiness of gait, balance disorders and various types of sensitivity (thermal, tactile, vibration, etc..). Patients with multiple sclerosis in the early stage of the disease often complain of decreased visual acuity and visual field constriction.
Early symptoms of multiple sclerosis are usually transient (moving the character). Their occurrence is often occurs against respiratory viral diseases or significant overheating of the body. This can lead to underestimation of severity of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis and a late diagnosis of the disease.
Against the background of the progression of disease in patients with multiple sclerosis symptoms of the disease appear later:
- Selective fatigue limbs,
- paresis of the muscles,
- reduced visual acuity in one eye (feeling fog or spots before the eye), ghosting,
- speech disorders,
- sphincter disorders (swallowing, urination, bowel movements).
The clinical picture of the disease can be described in more detail, but knowing exactly what type of multiple sclerosis.
Types of MS
According to the international classification decided to allocate 4 basic types of multiple sclerosis, with symptoms varying specificity:
- secondary progressive,
- primary progressive,
For remitting multiple sclerosis characterized by distinct periods of relapse and remission. During the attack of the disease is a persistent worsening MS symptoms lasting up to 24 hours. The next 30 days, the patient with multiple sclerosis is usually stable.
When secondary progressive type of disease neurological symptoms of multiple sclerosis are growing in leaps and bounds during periods of exacerbation. They become more and soon become periods of disease remission Just noticeable. Secondary-progressive type of disease develops in patients with relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis an average 10 years of onset of the disease if left untreated.
When primary progressive multiple sclerosis symptoms rapidly increase with the onset of disease. The periods of exacerbation and remission in this case absent.
More one type of illness, remitiruyusche-progressive multiple sclerosis is characterized by a sharp increase in symptoms during periods of attack, from an early stage of the disease.
Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
Early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is very important, as it helps to prevent the rapid growth of the patient's symptoms and disability. However, due to extensive clinical and transient symptoms diagnosis is usually late.
On the other hand overdiagnosis and too previously assigned specific treatment of the disease is also capable to cause significant harm to human health. In addition to the dynamic observation of patients with diagnosis of MS include magnetic resonance imaging, and immunologic study of cerebrospinal fluid.
Treatment of multiple sclerosis
The high efficiency of the treatment of multiple sclerosis - one of the most urgent problems of modern neurology. Especially in view of the fact that hitherto known methods for the prevention and causes of multiple sclerosis.
However, in the treatment of multiple sclerosis is no special achievements. In the treatment of exacerbations of the disease are usually used in individual doses of corticosteroids. Their goal - to reduce the inflammation of the spinal cord and reduce the duration of the attack. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis are appointed by the general scheme of therapeutic antioxidants, antiplatelet agents, etc. angioprotectors
For the prevention of relapse in multiple sclerosis applied immunomodulators. They allow a 30% reduction in the frequency of periods of the attack of the disease.
Symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis involves the physical therapy for partial recovery of motor and sensory functions of the patient. To improve the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis, restore social activity and normalize his mental state psihoreabilitatsii sessions are held.