Brief description of the disease
Leptospirosis has many names: infectious jaundice, fever, water, Fiedler's disease
, Canine fever, Japanese daily fever. All of them are characterized by an acute infectious disease that is caused by parasitic microorganisms of the family Leptospira. The disease is characterized by symptoms of intoxication, multiple lesions of the liver and kidney disorders in the nervous system. In severe cases of leptospirosis in humans leads to jaundice, meningitis, hemorrhagic syndrome and acute renal failure.
Etiology and pathogenesis
Germs are parasitic mind Interrogans family Leptospiraceae. They enter the body through a medium skin and mucous membranes, and then deposited in the lymph nodes and start to actively proliferate. Next leptospirosis goes to other organs and systems, mainly accumulate in the kidneys, liver and central nervous system. Activities of harmful microorganisms leads to necrotic tissue and degenerative changes, violation of the integrity of the epithelium of the renal tubules, the development of DIC and subsequent hemorrhagic rash.
The epidemiology of the disease
Infection occurs on all continents except Antarctica. Particularly widely circulated leptospirosis in tropical humid climates. Disease vectors are forest mice, water rats, dogs, cattle, pigs, rats and some other animals. People with a diagnosis of leptospirosis symptoms after consuming meat and milk from infected animals, meat cutting, prolonged contact with water, infected secretions media. Specificity of invading the body determines the risk. Most often ill workers livestock farms, shepherds, milkmaids, veterinarians and persons working in swampy meadows.
As a rule, leptospirosis diagnosed in people in the summer months, especially in August
When creating the perfect conditions for bacteria.
Leptospirosis - symptoms
The incubation period of the infection lasts from 2 weeks to 1 month. The disease begins with acute symptoms:
- a sharp increase in body temperature to 39-40 degrees;
- pronounced muscle pain (very sore calf muscle);
- changes in facial skin - it becomes bloodshot, puffy. Patients are observed vasodilation and conjunctival hyperemia, which often lead to the appearance of hemorrhage.
In the first week after the onset of the disease may cause exanthema different nature. In severe forms of the disease are observed hemorrhagic rash, localized to the elbow and in the armpits. In addition, the diagnosis of leptospirosis treatment includes correction of the liver, kidneys and cardiovascular system, because patients develop urinary retention, Pasternatskogo symptom, shortness of breath, decreased blood pressure and tachycardia.
Symptoms of fever are observed about a week, after which the temperature returns to normal. After 3-4 days, maybe a new temperature increase, but this time it subsides after 1-2 days.
In some cases lektospiroz humans leads to the development icteric
Which is accompanied by a significant increase in liver and changes in urine color.
If untreated, the disease causes serious complications - acute liver or kidney failure, meningitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, and encephalitis. Depending on the person's immune system may be a manifestation and other serious consequences.
Diagnosis of the disease
To determine the presence of Leptospira conducted studies of blood samples by direct microscopy. Furthermore, the agent is released during blood cultures on nutrient medium. The diagnosis can be confirmed by serology and by the reaction of Riga, DGC microagglutination-lysis.
Leptospirosis - Treatment of diseases
All patients subject to compulsory hospitalization. Causal treatment is taking penicillin. The standard dose of the drug - 000-12 6000 000 000 U / day.
The main remedy for leptospirosis is doxycycline
. Also, physicians use gamma globulin. Since there is a risk of developing kidney abnormalities, patients are recommended osmosis and saluretics. Hemodialysis is assigned in the event of symptoms of acute renal failure.
In order to prevent need to regularly vaccinate personnel livestock farms and enterprises engaged in processing meat and dairy products.