Keloids, or keloid scars - abnormal growth of scar tissue in the area of trauma, burns, surgery, infectious skin lesions, or other violations of its territorial integrity, significantly exceed the size of the primary injury. Localization keloids different. In most cases, keloids are formed in the zone of the chest and shoulders, in the ear lobe, to functionally inactive areas of the skin. The severity of the injury does not affect the probability of appearance of keloid its dimensions. Externally, keloids have the form of dense tumor formation, towering over the skin on 5-8mm, pale or bright pink, bluish color. The etiology of keloids is still unknown.
Keloids are not dangerous to human life and health, but deliver significant physical and psychological discomfort (unsightly appearance of keloids). Keloid formation is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- The itch by scratching;
- Pain on pressure;
- Increasing the sensitivity of the affected tissues;
- Redness in the keloid.
There are two stages of keloids:
- The active stage is characterized by dynamic growth of keloid that brings physical discomfort to the patient (pain, itching, numbness of the affected tissues) at this stage to say about the active keloids;
- The inactive stage is characterized by the completion of the full keloid scar does not cause much discomfort to the patient. This is called a keloid inactive or stable, the color is close to the natural color of the skin.
Keloid begins to form after 1-3 months from the time of epithelialization of the wound. The active growth stage can last more than 12 months. Typically keloid retains firm texture and reduced in size.
We must distinguish keloids and hypertrophic scars, as it will determine the type of scar further tactics of treatment. Hypertrophic scar unlike keloids formed only in the area of skin damage, does not exceed the boundaries of the injury. The causes are hypertrophic scar of inflammation in the healing process, the accession of secondary infection, endocrine dysfunction, reduced local immunity. Other features are similar to keloid.
If you experience these symptoms should see a doctor:
- Amplification of pain like by mechanical action (pressure sensitive friction rumen) and in relative calm him;
- The appearance of signs of inflammation of both the scar and surrounding skin areas;
- Significant increase keloid in a relatively short time.
Risk factors for the development of keloids
The exact reasons for the formation of keloids is still unknown. There are factors greatly increase the risk of keloids in humans, among which are:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Severe skin pigmentation;
- Localization of traumatic lesions of the skin (chest, ear lobe, the area of the deltoid muscle);
- Infection of the wound during healing;
- The imbalance of the immune system;
- Hormonal imbalances in the body;
- Age-related changes;
- Violation of innervation.
Keloids on the ears: etiology
Keloids often hit earlobe. One of the reasons for the formation of keloids in the ears becomes punctured ear lobe or cartilage, wearing earrings made of low-quality alloys, irritating the skin of the ear. Keloids ears deliver not only aesthetic discomfort (keloid location in a prominent place, the inability to wear jewelry), but the physical, as during the active phase of growth of keloids can cause a burning sensation, itching, pain, aggravated by mechanical impact on the area (grazing scar in the process of dressing during sleep). There is speculation that the ear lobe piercing gun and the establishment of earrings screw contributes to the formation of keloids on the ears. At present, some treatment methods are developed keloids on the ears.
Keloids: treatment, conservative methods
Among the treatments for keloids are distinguished conservative and radical methods. Regardless of the type of keloids, scar treatment is preferable to begin with conservative measures, including:
- Compression - the application of pressure to the affected area of skin keloid. Squeezing inhibits the growth of keloid, blocks its power compresses rumen vessels, which may lead to stop its growth;
- The use of silicon wafers - the mechanism of action of this method of treatment of keloids is based on squeezing capillaries, reducing the synthesis of collagen, reducing the delivery of mediators of inflammation, scar hydration;
- Ointment therapy - This method is optional and is rarely used as an independent therapy keloids treated with ointments based on secondary effects of anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, normalizing blood circulation substances;
- Corticosteroids - This technique is applied locally or by introducing substances into keloids, scar treatment in this case is based on the reduction of collagen synthesis (inhibition of fibroblast division, generating collagen, as well as the increase in the concentration of collagenase - enzyme that promotes the splitting of collagen);
- Cryosurgery - keloid tissue damage, treatment is aimed at destruction of the cytoplasm and organelles cryogen. This technique allows you to completely remove a keloid. The advantage of this technique is a low likelihood of recurrence of keloids;
- Cosmetic correction of - various techniques (peels, dermabrasion), aimed at correcting the appearance of the scar.
Removal of keloids: aggressive methods of treatment
Aggressive treatment methods involve excision of keloid scar tissue surgically or burn scar laser field.
Surgical excision of keloids involves not only removal of the scar tissue, but also the removal area of skin on which was formed a keloid. The main disadvantages of surgical removal of keloids is a high probability of a new scar at the site of surgical excision. Removal of the portion of the skin to reduce the risk of new keloid. Recurrences after surgical removal of keloids reach 74-90%. Surgical treatment of keloids is a necessary step if conservative methods of treatment of scars proved ineffective.
Laser correction of keloid can remove (cut and burn) scar with a minimum of trauma to surrounding tissues. Laser surgery is used for the integrated treatment of keloids (and combined with local injection of corticosteroid therapy). Unlike surgical excision of keloid recurrence rate for laser correction greatly reduced and reaches only 35-43%.
With keloids treatment unconventional means (traditional medicine), as well as self could aggravate the situation.