General information about the disease
Amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery, amebic colitis) - an infectious disease, the main manifestation of which is the defeat of the colon and the development of abscesses in some other organs (most often in the liver). The disease is caused by pathogenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. They are prevalent in tropical and subtropical climates, that is natural, given the low level of sanitation in these regions. However, nowadays intestinal amebiasis is an important medical and social problem for Russia, as the increase in the number of infected patients leads to an increase in deaths, particularly among children.
To understand the seriousness of the situation enough to know that the carriers of infection are around 480 million. People. Every tenth sick suffering from intestinal amebiasis extraintestinal abscesses and colitis, and 4% of these patients die because of the wrong diagnosis and delayed medical care. Note also that intestinal amebiasis spread rapidly among the population of the developed countries under the influence of migration, foreign tourism and economic deterioration.
Classification and symptoms of amebiasis
The causative agent of amebiasis - or tissue-dissolving dysentery amoeba Entamoeba histolityca. It lives in the human colon, can cause necrosis, sores, to penetrate the mucosa and submucosa. Depending on the type of agent and its location in the body, doctors isolated intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis.
One of the most common clinical forms of intestinal amebiasis is dysenteric colitis. He has a sharp and persistent with an incubation period of 1 week to 3-4 months. The main symptoms of this form of amebiasis:
- frequent stools (up to 4-6 times a day);
- bloody or mucous inclusion in the faeces;
- fever (in the later stages);
- pulling or cramping in the lower abdomen;
- tenesmus painful.
If a person develops launched amebiasis, symptoms of infection are accompanied by signs of intoxication, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting. When acute course of the patient's abdomen becomes soft, felt a sharp pain on palpation of the colon. After 4-6 weeks the symptoms of amebiasis damped into remission, which can last as the 1-2 weeks and months. If you do not take steps to treat the disease - develop chronic intestinal amebiasis, the treatment of which is difficult due to the emergence of more and more pockets of infection.
Chronic amoebiasis flows in a continuous or relapsing forms. And in fact, in both cases the patient has:
- exhaustion due to lack of appetite;
- decreased performance;
- development of asthenic syndrome;
- enlarged liver;
- vitamin and protein-energy malnutrition;
- an unpleasant taste in the mouth;
- pale skin;
- mild to moderate pain in the iliac region;
- severe symptoms of cardiovascular disease (tachycardia, muffled heart sounds, pulse lability).
If untreated, the infection leads to perforation of amebiasis walls of the colon, bleeding, appendicitis, peritonitis develop, gangrene. Such patients need for early surgery, since, otherwise, amoebiasis causes death in 100% of the reported cases.
Extra-intestinal form of amoebiasis is the result of hematogenous or direct entry of strains from the gut. When the diagnosis of chronic intestinal amebiasis, the symptoms often suggest liver disease. This process is accompanied by:
- increasing the size of the body;
- High temperature (up to 39 degrees);
- abscess formation;
- chest pain;
- chills, fever;
- the presence of pus and blood in the sputum.
In recent years, it recorded a lot of cases where amebiasis affect not only the liver, but also on other vital organs: urogenital, and respiratory system, skin, heart. Accordingly, at the first adverse symptoms, you should consult a doctor and pass a comprehensive examination.
Amebiasis - Treatment of diseases
All the drugs used in the treatment of intestinal amebiasis, are divided into two groups - contact and systemic tissue amebotsidy. First used in the presence of a non-invasive amebiasis and in the final stages of treatment to eliminate the remaining amoebas. In addition, the contact (translucent) amebotsidy demand in those cases when it is necessary to take preventive measures to prevent the spread of infection. For drugs in this group include: etofamid, paromomycin, klefamid, diloxanide. When the diagnosis of invasive amebiasis, treatment involves receiving system tissue amebotsidov - metronidazole secnidazole, tinidazole. In severe forms of amebiasis recommended antimicrobials, active against the intestinal microflora.
The developed abscesses (more than 6 cm) in need of aspiration (percutaneous drainage). This procedure is necessary to prevent rupture of the abscess, and in those cases where chemotherapy intestine does not result in the expected results. Corticosteroids patients diagnosed with amoebiasis - contraindicated, as they are accompanied by numerous complications.
In general, subject to early diagnosis and adequate medical therapy, intestinal amebiasis is completely cured within a few months after starting treatment.