General characteristics of the disease
Influenza is one of the most common infectious disease refers to a group of acute respiratory viral infections.
The disease causes flu viruses, which currently has more than 2,000 species. These viruses can be propagated in the form of epidemics, the rise of which has to tend to the autumn-winter period, and pandemics, which are recorded every 30-40 years. Many people refer to the flu quite dismissive, considering his usual "cold", while every year from this disease in the world die of the order of 250-500 thousand. People.
Susceptible to influenza viruses by people of all ages, but the greatest threat the disease poses to the elderly, children, pregnant women and people suffering from diseases of the heart and lungs. The source of the flu is already a sick man who selects the environment the virus through coughing, sneezing, and so on. D. With aerosol transmission mechanism (inhalation of droplets of mucus, saliva), influenza spreads quickly enough - the patient is a danger to others during the week starting From the first hours of infection.
Flu symptoms are not specific, differentiated from other acute respiratory viral infection without special laboratory tests is almost impossible.
The diagnosis of "flu" is set mostly in practice only on the basis of the epidemiological situation.
Disease begins, as a rule, badly: the body temperature rises to 38-40
C, chills, headache, bursting pain in joints and muscles, weakness. Nasal discharge is not a typical flu symptoms because of this disease, in contrast, are characterized by dryness of the nose and throat. In most cases, there is intense dry cough,
which is accompanied by pain in the sternum. Examination of the patient may reveal further signs of influenza such as hyperemia of hypotension, injection of the sclera ("red-eye"), granularity and hyperemia of hard and soft palate, relative bradycardia.
Flu symptoms usually persist for 3-5 days, after which the patient is recovering.
In severe form of the disease most common complications are otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia, however, may develop and consequences such as cerebral edema, circulatory collapse, haemorrhagic syndrome, secondary bacterial complications, worsening of chronic diseases.
Treatment of influenza
Long time treatment of flu was only symptomatic and involves taking antipyretic, expectorants, antitussives and vitamins, particularly of large doses of ascorbic acid, as well as compliance with bed rest and drinking plenty of fluids. Today, symptomatic treatment of flu has not lost its relevance, but at the same time it is understood that, in addition to the elimination of symptoms, and must be addressed directly to its cause, that is, with the virus.
Medications with influenza should be prescribed by a doctor, today effectively treated with antiviral drugs, provided that their reception will be launched before the clinical manifestations of the disease.
To suppress the spread of the virus in the body, reducing the severity of symptoms, reducing the duration of the disease and reduce the frequency of secondary complications are advised to take antiviral drugs such as zanamivir and oseltamivir (Tamiflu). These flu medicines are effective against many flu strains, but their reception is possible only by prescription and under medical supervision. For blocking the proton pump and the prevention of viral entry into cells use formulations Rimantadine and amantadine. Antiviral and immune-stimulating properties have drugs interferon (Grippferon, Ingaron, Amisin) and interferon inducers (Kagocel, TSikloferon), but the self-treatment of influenza these drugs undesirable decide whether their admission should take the doctor.
The right to exist and have a homeopathic medicine for influenza, including the widely popular Oscillococcinum is an extract of the heart and liver of ducks musk. Despite the fact that manufacturers of certain drugs through living organisms or extracts of plants say they are effective in the treatment and prevention of influenza, usually these statements have clinical evidence.
Prevention of influenza
The flu shot is a traditional method of preventing the disease. Vaccination is the most shows for children, the elderly children, patients with chronic lung disease and heart doctors. Vaccination against influenza involves the introduction of healthy people live, an inactivated vaccine containing antigens usually three strains of virus selected based on the recommendations of WHO.
Emergency prevention of influenza can be called intranasal (nasal drops) interferon (Nazoferon) that it is expedient to apply after close contact with infected people. It is also in direct contact with patients from getting the flu can save the use of gauze dressings, use rimantadine or lubrication oxolinic ointment nasal passages.
Non-specific prevention of influenza includes: room ventilation, frequent hand washing with special means, wet cleaning with disinfectants and air disinfection using ultraviolet radiation, catalytic cleaners, aerosol disinfectants. To maintain immunity, able to resist the virus, it is necessary to include in the diet of foods rich in vitamins, lactic acid bacteria, as well as the use of honey, propolis, royal jelly.
Preventing flu epidemic depends largely on awareness already ill person, to avoid public places with high concentration of people for whom the patient, especially coughing and sneezing, is a potential risk of infection.