General characteristics of the disease
Infectious mononucleosis is an acute viral disease caused by a virus, Epstein-Barr virus, a relatively stable external environment.
This disease is characterized by fever, lymph nodes, throat, spleen, liver, and also a kind of change in the composition of blood.
Infectious mononucleosis is sometimes called the "kissing disease" because of its airborne transmission, particularly through kissing, using common bed linen, crockery. Favorable to the spread of the virus are places with a great crowding healthy and sick people - kindergartens, camps, boarding schools, dormitories.
Typically, the clinical picture of infectious mononucleosis develops in young adults: the peak incidence in girls is observed in 14-16 years, and the maximum contamination noted in boys 16-18 years. Most people 25-35 years to detect antibodies to this virus.
Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis
Incubation period can range from 5 to 45 days, but usually lasts for 7-10 days. Disease duration, usually not more than two months. Infectious mononucleosis, symptoms may selectively or comprehensively, begins with a sharp rise in body temperature, swelling of the cervical lymph nodes, difficulty in nasal breathing and sore throat. These symptoms are usually fully developed at the end of the first week. Initially, the majority of patients and there are symptoms of infectious mononucleosis as the presence of peculiar blood lymphocytes (atypical mononuclear cells) as well as enlargement of the liver and spleen.
The disease may begin gradually: malaise, slight fever, or lack thereof, mild inflammation in the upper airways. In some patients the body temperature is significantly increased only in the height of the disease, but when the temperature is not over the entire period of infectious mononucleosis, are very rare.
An important, very often the first symptom of infectious mononucleosis is a swelling of the lymph nodes, especially cervical. They can see or feel out - the value can vary from the size of a pea to a hen's egg. For this disease is not characteristic abscess of the lymph nodes.
The defeat of the oropharynx - the constant symptoms of infectious mononucleosis. Patients observed swelling and an increase in the tonsils, the defeat of nasopharyngeal tonsils, which, in turn, causes the difficulty of nasal breathing, nasal congestion, expressed, in a choked voice, "snoring" mouth breathing. For infectious mononucleosis characterized rear rhinitis, nasal discharge therefore is not usually observed in acute disease, they appear only after the restoration of nasal breathing. Patients with marked swelling of the posterior pharyngeal wall, which is usually covered with a thick mucus. While the disease is observed moderate hyperemia throat and a slight sore throat.
Infectious mononucleosis in children in 85% of cases, followed by a touch on and nasopharyngeal tonsils. Usually, the appearance of the symptom (in the beginning or at 3-4 days of disease) causes even greater increase in the temperature and deterioration in general condition.
Increased liver and spleen is seen in 97-98% of patients. Changing the size of the liver sometimes provokes the appearance of yellow skin, which later disappears with the other manifestations of the disease. Began to increase from the first days of the disease, and which achieved its maximum size at 4-10 day, the liver returns to its normal value until the end of the first - the beginning of the second month of the disease.
Often the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are eyelid edema, puffiness of the face, skin rashes, petechiae, and rash in the mouth.
The disease can also manifest itself in the form of violations of the cardiovascular system, tachycardia, systolic murmur, muffled heart sounds.
Infectious mononucleosis in children with chronic course and is not characterized by relapses. Complications in patients often due to the intensification of the microbial flora, as well as layering SARS, otitis media, pneumonia, bronchitis. Rare complications of the disease are considered pancreatitis, orchitis and mumps. In 80% of cases of infectious mononucleosis is fully cured in 2-3 weeks, but in some cases, changes in the blood (the presence of atypical mononuclear cells, moderate leukocytosis) can be stored up to six months. The lethal outcome of the disease is possible only in rare cases - from a ruptured spleen, severe lesions of the nervous system in a genetic disease of the lymphatic system.
Treatment for infectious mononucleosis
Currently, the specific treatment of infectious mononucleosis not developed.
Patients are encouraged to drink plenty of bed rest, diet, suggesting the exclusion of fried and fatty foods, spicy seasonings. Symptomatic treatment of infectious mononucleosis include vitamins, the use of allergen agents (reduce sensitivity to the allergen), nose drops, rinse the throat and pharynx yodinolom, furatsilina solution, tincture of calendula, sage, chamomile, 3% hydrogen peroxide or other antiseptic.
In the treatment of infectious mononucleosis advisable for 2-3 days to dig the nose interferon or apply rectal suppositories viferon for 5-10 days. Alternatively, you can use natural stimulant of interferon - infusions of lemongrass, ginseng, devil, Arap, sterculia.
When infectious mononucleosis recommended neovir, which is antibacterial, antiviral and immunomodulatory agent. Sulfa drugs in this disease is not assigned. Antibiotics may be recommended only in case of joining the secondary microflora. In the treatment of severe forms of disease in short courses applied corticosteroids particularly prednisolone
Infectious mononucleosis in children does not suggest specific treatments. After recovery exercise athletes and adolescents should be limited to a minimum of six months, in order to reduce the risk of traumatic spleen.
Prevention of infectious mononucleosis
Sick or need to isolate the house for 2-3 weeks or hospitalized for clinical reasons. Disinfection is not required, it is sufficient to ventilate the room regularly, and do wet cleaning. The patient should give a separate bowl and necessary care items.
Since the vaccine has not been developed infectious mononucleosis, active immunization against the disease is not carried out.