Complicated symptomatic complex characterized trophic, endocrine, autonomic and metabolic disorders, lesions develop on the background of the hypothalamic area, called the hypothalamic syndrome.
There are the following forms of the disease:
- Diencephalic (hypothalamic) epilepsy;
- Violation of thermoregulation;
- Disorders of sleep and wakefulness.
The most commonly encountered in clinical practice vegetative-vascular form - 32%, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, endocrine disorders detected among 27% of patients with hypothalamic syndrome, 10% of patients are with neuromuscular form, and 4% - in violation of thermoregulation.
Possible complications of symptomatic complex are gynecomastia, ovarian and myocardial degeneration.
Causes of hypothalamic syndrome
The disease can occur in the background of traumatic brain injury, acute and chronic toxicity and neuroinfection, cerebrovascular insufficiency, chronic diseases and endocrine disorders of the internal organs. Also cause hypothalamic syndrome may be a brain tumor, trauma, stress, mental strain, and alcohol poisoning.
Symptoms of hypothalamic syndrome
The most common symptoms of hypothalamic syndrome are:
- Vegetovascular neuroendocrine disorders;
- The disorder of sleep and wakefulness;
- Violation of thermoregulation and sweating;
- Fatigue and weakness;
- Feeling short of breath;
- Unstable chair;
- Pain in the heart, and the lability of the pulse;
- Tachycardia and asymmetry of blood pressure;
- Tremor fingers outstretched hands and eyelids;
- Propensity to allergic reactions;
- Expressed dermographism and emotional disturbances.
Often, changes in weather conditions, emotional stress, pain and menstrual factors, provoked when hypothalamic syndrome of vegetative-vascular paroxysms. Such attacks primarily begin nightfall there were no signs of beginning lasts on average from 15 minutes to 3 hours or more. Most patients with hypothalamic syndrome detected hyperinsulinism with impaired glucose tolerance, as well as violation of water-salt and fat metabolism.
Hypothalamic syndrome of puberty
Symptomatic disorders adrenergic kortikotropnoy pituitary function is a hypothalamic syndrome of puberty.
Usually, the cause of the disease can not be established, but a significant role in the development of the syndrome play frequent sore throats, chronic intoxications and infections in childhood, birth injuries, as well as excessive drinking in adolescence.
Develops hypothalamic syndrome of puberty in children aged 12-15 years, at least in 17-19 years, more frequently in females. Patients in the period from 11 to 13 years are starting to grow strongly, especially noticeable this feature manifests itself in young men who quickly outstrip the growth of their peers.
Symptoms of hypothalamic syndrome of puberty are as follows:
- Frequent headaches;
- Neuropsychiatric disorders - tearfulness, depression and irritability;
- Sustained increase in blood pressure;
- Insatiable hunger;
- Transient hypertension;
- Hyperkeratosis in areas of friction of clothing, in the lumbar region, neck folds, the outer surface of the shoulder and elbow joints;
- Violation of the menstrual cycle.
The deposition of fat occurs mostly in the breast, buttocks, pubic area and the shoulder girdle, because of what looks like a thick neck and short, the patient lifted his shoulders, the face is rounded, the cheeks blush appears abnormal.
In patients with pubertal hypothalamic syndrome trophic skin is broken, it becomes marble-cyanotic color and becomes cool to the touch, especially in the thighs and buttocks. Often, in the abdomen, arms, breasts, chest and buttocks are formed reddish, sometimes purple-cyanotic, stretching bands.
The girls prematurely formed secondary sexual characteristics, appearance becomes effeminate boys character, facial hair does not grow at all or very poorly, even at the end of puberty.
Diagnosis of hypothalamic syndrome
For the diagnosis and the subsequent appointment of adequate treatment, the patient should seek medical assistance from a neurologist. The physician should determine the etiology of hypothalamic syndrome and a leading component of the disease, the diagnosis of particular importance are the results of tests on Zimnitsky and sugar curve, electroencephalography and thermometers at three points. To clarify the diagnosis also need ultrasound and computed tomography of the adrenal glands.
Treatment of hypothalamic syndrome
After confirming the diagnosis the doctor proceeds to the selection of adequate therapy. The mainstay of treatment of hypothalamic syndrome is the use of certain drugs, such as:
- Means the action of which is directed to treatment of the underlying disease;
- Selectively influencing the state of the parasympathetic and sympathetic tone - Bellaspon, pirroksan, obzidan, Platifillin, ganglioplegic and herb preparations;
- Antidepressants and anxiolytics;
- Glucose, gemodez and isotonic sodium chloride solution (for detoxification);
- Fortifying agent.
In recent years, the increasing popularity in the treatment of hypothalamic syndrome gets acupuncture method, since its effectiveness confirm the results of many patients.
If the disease is accompanied by a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, the patient is prescribed a special diet, vitamin therapy, anoreksanty and biguanides.
Also, treatment of hypothalamic syndrome should include the limitation of the mental and physical stress of the patient, with the exception of wakefulness during the night, under the supervision of a doctor the patient must carry out physiotherapy and attend physiotherapy.
Hypothalamic syndrome is a complex symptomatic complex, arising from traumatic brain injury, stress, mental tension, endocrine disorders, etc. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease should be engaged neurologist, it's important to know that the self can lead to irreversible consequences.