Hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism) - endocrine syndrome (clinical condition) caused by over-active thyroid hormones thyroxine (T3) and triiodothyronine (T4) the thyroid gland. The hormones produced by the thyroid gland are the main focal points of the organism and regulate the consumption of heat and oxygen production. Blood supersaturated hormones carries them all the organs, tissues and systems, causing the acceleration processes.
Hyperthyroidism standard is the result of various pathologies of the thyroid gland, which can be caused by disorders directly in the hardware, and in the process, that it regulates. Hyperthyroidism is the level of thyroid dysfunction is the primary (thyroid disease), secondary (pituitary pathology) and tertiary (hypothalamic pathology).
Hyperthyroidism is most often exposed to people with autoimmune disorders, genetic predisposition and young women.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism are due to an acceleration of all processes in the body and manifest enhanced work systems and organs. It depends on the symptoms of hyperthyroidism on the severity and duration of the disease, as well as the degree of affected organs, systems and tissues. Excess hormone produced by the thyroid gland, the following effect on a human body:
central nervous system. Irritability, emotional instability, irritability, unwarranted anxiety, fear, rapid speech, insomnia, hand tremors;
the cardiovascular system. Heart rhythm disturbances - difficult to treat persistent sinus tachycardia, atrial flutter and flicker. The increase in the gap between the upper and lower pressure reading due to the simultaneous increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction. Increased heart rate, increased volume and a linear velocity of circulation. heart failure;
Ophthalmology. Increased eye slits, offset forward protrusion of the eyeball limited his mobility - exophthalmos. Slow flashing, split subjects, swelling of the eyelids. There is increased dryness of the eyes, corneal erosion, pain in the eyes, tearing. The result of compression and degeneration of the optic nerve may be complete loss of vision;
Gastrointestinal tract. Increase or decrease in appetite, in elderly patients - up to complete rejection of food. Eating Disorders Education and bile, paroxysmal abdominal pain, loose stools;
Musculoskeletal system. Thyrotoxic myopathy - muscle wasting, increased muscle fatigue, chronic fatigue and shivering body and limbs, impaired motor activity, osteoporosis. As a consequence, there are difficulties with the long walks, especially on stairs, difficulty in carrying heavy loads, may develop thyrotoxic reversible muscle paralysis;
Respiratory. Vital capacity is reduced as a result of stagnation and swelling formed persistent shortness of breath;
Sexual sphere. Violation of the secretion of female and male gonadotropin, which could be a consequence of infertility. In men develop gynecomastia, reduced potency observed in women - disruptions in the menstrual cycle (irregular menstruation, painful, scanty discharge, accompanied by severe headache, general weakness before fainting);
Metabolism. Accelerate metabolism - weight reduction, despite increased appetite, development thyrogenous diabetes, increased heat production (fever, sweating). As a result of the accelerated collapse of cortisol - adrenal insufficiency. Increased liver, severe cases of hyperthyroidism - jaundice. Excessive thirst, frequent urination and abundant (polyuria) due to violations of water metabolism. Thinning of the skin, hair, nails, strong early gray hair, soft tissue swelling.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism, if present may be absent in elderly people - the so-called hidden or masked hyperthyroidism. Frequent depression, confusion, drowsiness, weakness - the typical reaction of the body of older people on the excess of thyroid hormones. Violation of the cardiovascular system in the elderly in hyperthyroidism observed much more frequently than the young.
There are three degrees of severity of the disease, do not depend on the size of the thyroid gland, which is shared by the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Mild hyperthyroidism symptoms:
Blood pressure - systolic pressure while lowering diastolic;
A pronounced exophthalmos;
Strong tremors tireotoksicski spreads all over the body.
It is diagnosed by the presence of the disease symptoms of hyperthyroidism and the results of research.
need to do:
A blood test for the quantitative content of hormones;
Thyroid ultrasound and CT - to determine its size and the presence of nodules;
ECG - to determine abnormalities in the functioning of the cardiovascular system;
Radioisotope scintigraphy - to assess the functional activity of the thyroid gland and identify nodules.
If necessary, a biopsy is prescribed nodes. A survey of physician treatment plan outlines hyperthyroidism.
Treatment of hyperthyroidism
In current medical practice, there are several treatments for hyperthyroidism:
Medication (conservative) therapy;
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland, or part thereof;
Methods of treatment of hyperthyroidism are used alone or in combination. Endocrinologist chooses how to treat the patient, given his age, cause hyperthyroidism disease and its severity, the individual and co-morbidities. An important role in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, and in the rehabilitation period, given to diet and hydrotherapy. Once every six months is recommended sanatorium treatment of hyperthyroidism with emphasis on cardiovascular disease.