Hyperhydration - excess volume of water contained in the body or in separate parts, a particular form of violation of water-salt balance of the body. Clinical manifestations of hydration are swelling of body tissues, lungs, brain, excessive accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity - ascites. Some state in hydration are critical to the patient's life.
The human body is to a certain extent from the water, the volume of which changes with age. Thus, the volume of water in the body of the newborn reaches 75%, while only the body of an old man to 55% of water. Water in the human body fluid is distributed over sectors: intracellular space comprises about 60% of the water present in the body, the rest of the volume of water is distributed in the extracellular space - the extracellular space, blood plasma, transcellular fluid (gastro-intestinal tract, spinal canal, eye chamber, urinary ducts, adrenal tubules).
The water balance of the body is supported by correlating the volume of liquid entering and output simultaneously. Daily norm of body fluids (2, 5 L) was fed with food (approximately 1 L), drinking (about 1, 5 liters) and the oxidation of the liquid which is formed during the oxidation of fats (about 0, 3 - 0, 4 L). The liquid excreted by evaporation (sweat output of about 0, 6 l water) by the kidneys (output of about 1, 5 liters of liquid) in the expired air (excretion 0 and 4 liters per day), with the feces (0 to 2 liters per day).
If you violate water balance (hyperhydration) varies not only the volume of liquid contained in the body, but also changes the level of minerals in the body. Excessive concentration change of sodium, potassium and other minerals (electrolytes) under hydration may lead to hyponatremia, hypokalemia, total electrolyte imbalance organism.
Hyperhydration may occur in the body due to excessive fluid intake or insufficient excretion of body fluids. In a number of cases diagnosed hyperhydration both factors are present in a patient's body. Hyperhydration may develop as under the influence of external factors, and because of malfunctions, diseases of the body.
Hyperhydration the body: causes, types of dyskinesia
The main reasons for hydration of the body are:
- Excess fluid introduction into the body (water intoxication) having a reduced content of salts or their total absence. In most cases such a state develops with repeated administration of enteral fluid to the body (excessive fluid intake for certain types of mental disorders, excessive introduction of water into the gastrointestinal tract by washing the stomach);
- Reduced renal excretory function in renal failure;
- Circulatory insufficiency with edema formation;
- Elevated levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH);
- Congestive heart failure;
- Cirrhosis of the liver.
The main types of hydration of the body include:
- Isoosmolar overhydratation organism - increase in extracellular fluid with a normal osmolarity. As a rule, the violation is short-lived and quickly eliminated by the body under normal operation of systems that support its water balance;
- Gipoosmolyarnaya overhydratation - this type of hydration develops simultaneously in the cellular and intercellular spaces, characterized by a radical violation of the acid-base and ionic balance and membrane potential of cell structures;
- Hyperosmolar hyperhydration - a form of hydration, which develops at the forced use of sea water for drinking, for which there is a rapid increase in the concentration of electrolytes.
Hyperhydration: symptoms of the disorder
When symptoms of fluid overload as follows:
- The change in blood volume;
- Increased blood pressure;
- Heart rhythm disorders;
- Violation of urine (diuresis) - polyuria, anuria;
- Intoxication, vomiting, diarrhea;
- Neuropsychiatric disorders character - cramps, apathy, impaired consciousness, lethargy.
In rare cases, fluid overload observed skin redness, fever, insomnia, aversion to food.
When overhydration symptoms to be carefully analyzed to determine the form of dyskinesia, and appropriate treatment.
The main effects of overhydration
The main effects of fluid overload include:
- The development of edema - the pathological processes characterized by increased content of fluid in the extravascular space of the body;
- Pulmonary edema - a condition in which the pulmonary interstitial diagnosed at an elevated level of the liquid;
- Swelling of the brain - the pathological process characterized by excessive accumulation of fluid in the cells of the brain and spinal cord;
- Hyponatremia - one of the symptoms of fluid overload, characterized by a decrease in the concentration of sodium ions in plasma (the level below 135 mmol / l);
- Hypokalemia - low levels of potassium in the blood, provoked a reduced amount of potassium in the body proceeds, its migration to tissue cells, it enhanced breeding;
- Rapid weight gain.
Treatment of overhydration
The main risk group for hydration of the body are patients with renal failure, heart failure, kidney and other diseases of the liver, as well as people exposed to increased physical stress, as well as strict diet. In the treatment of fluid overload key role played by reason of violation of water balance of the body.
A minor hyperhydration does not require additional medical correction. In normal operation of all systems, the body alone cope with excess liquid.
Upon detection of fluid overload, symptoms include headache, irritability, confusion, dizziness, patients are advised to restrict fluid intake.
In severe cases, medical treatment of fluid overload is applied (appointed diuretics), aimed at restoring fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. In rare cases, symptomatic treatment of fluid overload is appointed. When complex forms of hydration in patients assigned hemodialysis.
When dieting body lacks minerals. Patients are advised to reduce water consumption, an excess of which can lead to a decrease in the level of electrolytes in the body. To avoid fluid overload during increased physical activity, diet is not recommended the complete elimination of salt. To fill the water and electrolyte balance is recommended to use mineral water.