Hypercalcemia is a disease associated with increased calcium concentration in blood reaches a level greater than 1, 2-1, 5 mmol / L and the ionized calcium of more than 3 mmol / l of total calcium.
Causes and symptoms of hypercalcemia
Causes of hypercalcemia are pathological processes which adversely affect the body, increasing blood calcium. In some cases, cause disease drugs for the treatment of thyroid cancer, Burnett syndrome and malignant neoplasms. Also cause hypercalcemia may be diuretics that receives system for a long time.
In the course of medical research, it was found that the disease is more frequent in patients who were treated in hospital thiazide drugs.
If hypercalcemia does not have pronounced symptoms, it is confirmed by biochemical studies and clinical examination.
In the first stage of the disease symptoms are not observed, and the further development of symptoms of the nervous system, digestive and cardiovascular systems.
The main symptoms of hypercalcemia include:
- on the part of the digestive system - nausea, vomiting, anorexia, increased acidity, constipation;
- the central nervous system - dizziness, headache, fatigue, drowsiness, loss of coordination, confusion, stupor, coma, psychosis;
- on the part of the musculoskeletal system - myalgia, neuralgia, arthralgia, weakness, muscle cramps;
- of the cardiovascular system - hypertension, palpitations, arrhythmia, tachycardia.
May provoke hypercalcemia drugs, genetic factors, Paget's disease, an excess of vitamin D, malignant tumors and endocrine disorders.
In acute hypercalcemia observed severe weakness, nausea, sudden changes in blood pressure, confusion, disorientation, stupor and collapse.
If the disease is not detected in time and treatment accordingly, it is the development of kidney stones, bladder syndrome and pyelonephritis.
Diagnosis of the disease
To identify hypercalcemia conducted a series of diagnostic tests, including blood tests, urine analysis, measurement of PTH, ultrasonography of the neck, immunoelectrophoresis, bone marrow puncture and radiological examination of the skeleton.
The analyzed results of laboratory chemicals allows accurate diagnosis and determine the extent of hypercalcemia.
If the disease is accompanied by the development of malignant tumors, it is assigned to conduct a full clinical trial program search, including abdominal sonography, scintigraphy, X-ray and other radiological studies of the skeleton.
Treatment of hypercalcemia
Treatment should start with hypercalcemia eliminate causes of disease, including malignancies, stopping vitamins and reduce sources of excessive calcium entry into the body.
An important step in treatment is to restore the level of extracellular fluid and correction of electrolyte composition in the blood plasma.
The attending physician may prescribe phosphate intake, reducing the content of calcium and inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis.
The treatment of hypercalcemia may consist of basic and additional drugs, which include hormones, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs.
If necessary, treatment may be of a combined character, as well as a certain interval it is repeated or supplemented by special inhibitors.