The pathological processes in the body at which the protrusion of intracavitary and infringement of any of the bodies, collectively called a hernia and their localization are divided into several types.
Types of hernias
1. Inguinal hernia
The most common form of the disease - an inguinal hernia. According to medical statistics it is inguinal hernias account for more than 80 percent of all external abdominal hernias. Most often, an inguinal hernia in men, due to the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the male body.
In its etiology this type of hernia is divided into acquired and congenital inguinal hernia.
The symptoms of an inguinal hernia include:
- A sharp pain in the groin;
- Burning sensation, sharply increasing during physical exertion;
- In most cases, there is a characteristic outward protrusion in the groin area (which men can descend into the scrotum).
In order to establish the most accurate diagnosis of inguinal hernia and place of its localization in patients assigned ultrasound of the inguinal canal.
2. Umbilical hernia
Umbilical hernia is most often diagnosed in women. This fact is due to the fact that pregnancy and childbirth tend to weaken the muscle umbilical ring, which may protrude into the peritoneal cavity contents: loops of the colon and small intestine, omentum and the stomach wall.
Of particular danger are the cases of infringement of an umbilical hernia, in which the patient is progressing rapidly, and there is the state of acute intestinal obstruction.
Symptoms of an umbilical hernia include:
- Pain, significantly increasing during exercise, coughing, sneezing;
- Suddenly appearing urge to vomit;
- An increase in diameter umbilical ring;
- Bulge in the umbilical ring.
For the expert diagnosis of umbilical hernia is not particularly difficult, but irreducible hernia to exclude metastatic tumor of the umbilical ring, patients received additional instrumental examination methods.
The most common explanation for persistent and unexplained pain in the back - intervertebral hernia. It appears this pathological condition provided bulge fibrous ring in the intervertebral space followed by infringement and break its contents.
By place of origin herniated discs are divided into the following subtypes:
- Herniation of the lumbar spine;
- Hernia of the spine;
- Hernia of the cervical spine.
For the main causes of a herniated disc, of course, include the state of dehydration, in other words, drying of the intervertebral disc. Reduction of the normal fluid replacement in the intervertebral space leads to stagnation, then to ischemia, inflammatory edema, and as a result, acute pain syndrome in the area of the spine.
Symptoms of spinal hernias include:
- Varying degrees of pain;
- Headaches, pain in the neck, shoulders, dizziness (with herniated cervical spine);
- Pain in shoulders, shoulder blades, chest (with herniated thoracic);
- Pain in the lumbar region, pain and numbness in the legs, buttocks (with herniated lumbar department).
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Treatment of hernia
Conservative treatment of hernia is only possible in those cases where there are serious contraindications to surgery: acute infectious diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system, late pregnancy and so on. E., Is also considered a categorical refusal by the patient's surgery. Furthermore, no need for surgery often caused the patient's age. Hernias in infancy usually go away when the condition limiting the mobility of the hernia sac.
In most cases, the treatment of hernia is surgical excision of her. The operation is performed under local or general anesthesia and is an office and opening the hernia sac, its omission in the abdominal cavity and the implementation of special plastic to eliminate hernial ring.