Steatosis or fatty liver - a pathological condition in which fat is accumulated in hepatocytes in the form of droplets. Fat can be formed so much that the hepatocyte ruptures, and fat accumulates in the intercellular space in the form of fatty cyst that violate the structure of the liver.
It is a common disorder that can occur even in childhood, but most people are exposed to it after 45 years, more women than men suffer from non-alcoholic steatosis, men - steatosis, which developed as a result of alcoholism. Steatosis can be self pathology or symptom of some other primary diseases (e.g., diabetes type).
There are two main causes of hepatic steatosis. This excessive use of alcohol and violation of lipid-carbohydrate metabolism. Currently, prevailing are non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis. The development of non-alcoholic steatosis associated with excessive intake of fat in the body, they often suffer obese people.
There is evidence of the influence of genetic factors on the development of hepatic steatosis - it increases the risk, if the family has cases of steatosis, diabetes, obesity, pretty much.
Steatosis may develop under the influence of some long-accepted drugs (medicinal hepatic steatosis), for example such as tetracycline antibiotics, corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs.
Steatosis - a disease which develops long-term, it is characterized by a slow, chronic form of the flow. Symptoms of steatosis may be missing altogether, in which case it is found by chance during a medical examination for another reason. The most common symptoms are the appearance of steatosis weakness, nausea, liver enlargement, the emergence of a feeling of heaviness and constriction in the right hypochondrium. May appear spontaneous pain in the right upper quadrant. Another symptom of steatosis is exposure to colds and other infections due to decreased immunity. Steatosis can lead to violations of the outflow of bile, in this case, the symptoms of steatosis join the symptoms of cholestasis (stagnation of bile) yellowness of the skin, itching, intense pain in the right upper quadrant, nausea and vomiting with bile.
Development step and complications steatosis
Hepatic steatosis develops when excess fat entering into liver cells. Initially, the process involved individual hepatocytes (disseminated steatosis), then the group of liver cells (zonal obesity), then steatosis covers all liver tissue (diffuse obesity). Fat accumulates in the hepatocyte, then the oil drop increases so that hepatocyte breaks, resulting in a fatty cyst. Fatty cyst affect the surrounding tissue of the liver, causing a mesenchymal-cell response that leads to the seal around the tissue cysts and degeneration in its fibrous tissue. This is the beginning of cirrhosis, a condition that can be fatal.
There are the following stages of steatosis:
- Simple obesity. Fat accumulates in hepatocytes, hepatocytes whole;
- Obesity, combined with necrobiosis of hepatocytes. The formation of fatty liver cysts have mesenchymal-cell response;
- Predtsirroticheskaya stage. Around fatty cysts formed sections proliferation of connective tissue, disrupting the structure of the liver.
Steatosis Diagnosis can be challenging because the laboratory tests often show changes characteristic of inflammatory processes in the liver. Preliminary diagnosis can be made based on the symptoms of steatosis based on the data history (obesity, diabetes, alcoholism).
To confirm the diagnosis is carried out computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, the final diagnosis can only be confirmed after the capture of targeted biopsy under the control of computer tomography. Detection of fat droplets, as well as areas of fibrous tissue is diagnostic of hepatic steatosis.
Treatment of steatosis is to eliminate reasons that caused fatty liver and normalize metabolism.
During exacerbation of steatosis treatment is carried out in a hospital. Appointed by bed rest, drug therapy and nutritional therapy. After the acute symptoms subside patient discharged home, and outpatient treatment of steatosis.
Since the disease is associated with excessive intake of fat, a diet in the treatment of steatosis plays an important role. The fat content is sharply limited, preference is given to dairy plant foods, pay special attention to a sufficient amount of digestible protein. Eating recommends fractional, small portions. The patient must comply with sparing mode, with limited physical, emotional and mental stress. Non-acute recommended burdensome physical education, promoting the normalization of metabolism.
Drug treatment of steatosis is to appoint a long course lipotropic (breakdown of fat contribute to) drugs: vitamin
, Lipoic acid, methionine, Essentiale, anabolic steroids, and others.
It is also used physiotherapy effects: ozone therapy, stay in the chamber, ultrasound.
Generally, treatment is usually successful steatosis and reverse development process occurs quickly enough after the onset of effective therapy. An exception is the steatosis 3 stages, whereby in the liver parenchyma formed connective tissue. This stage of steatosis is irreversible, however energetic therapeutic measures and the elimination of damaging factors, as well as strict compliance with doctors' prescriptions can stop further degeneration of the liver and development of cirrhosis.