General characteristics of the disease
Under the medical term "glaucoma" is commonly understood as the whole group of severe ocular pathologies. The name of the disease has received from the Greek word «γλαύκωμα», the literal translation of which means "blue eyes clouding." Such exotic name of the disease is caused by a special color of the pupil. In glaucoma, it becomes a specific cyan, it gets extended standstill and lead to total blindness.
Symptoms of glaucoma can be diagnosed at any age. However, the highest frequency is glaucoma occurs in the elderly. So, for example, cases of congenital glaucoma are diagnosed only one child in the 15-20 thousand. Children during the first months of life. In persons older than 75 years diagnosed cases of glaucoma is already more than 3%.
At this point in medical research circles there is no consensus on the causes and mechanisms of development of glaucoma. As one version of the theory of the effect is considered elevated intraocular pressure.
It is believed that the systematic or periodically occurring elevated IOP can lead to nutritional disorder in the structure of the eye, violations of the outflow of fluid and other complications caused by defects in the retina and optic nerve in glaucoma.
Quite common is also a version of the multifactorial nature of the disease glaucoma. By a combination of factors that cause glaucoma, rank hereditary reasons, abnormality of the structure of trauma, disease of the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems.
According to this theory, summarizing the operation of all or more above factors can trigger the mechanism of glaucoma.
Symptoms of glaucoma
By the term "glaucoma" integrated over 60 different types of the disease with specific symptoms. Glaucoma any of these types, primarily characterized by lesions of the optic nerve fibers. Over time, the process proceeds to step complete atrophy of visual function.
The earliest symptom of glaucoma is a bad outflow of intraocular fluid from the eyeball. Behind him develop deterioration of blood supply of the eye tissue hypoxia and ischemia of the optic nerve. Lack of oxygen to the tissues eyes as a sign of glaucoma leads to gradual destruction and atrophy of the optic fibers.
Some of them may be in a state of so-called parabiosis (sleep). This allows you to restore the function of the eye in a timely begun treatment of glaucoma.
Types of Glaucoma
Congenital glaucoma is often caused by a genetically determined or transferred intrauterine infections. Symptoms of this type of glaucoma manifest in the first weeks of life. A child is born with a high intraocular pressure, increasing bilateral cornea or the entire eyeball. In common parlance congenital glaucoma is sometimes called dropsy eyes or bovine eye.
Juvenile and Juvenile glaucoma is diagnosed in children older than 3 years. In advanced cases, the manifestation of the disease symptoms of glaucoma can occur up to 35 years. At older ages diagnosed glaucoma have referred to an adult and can be primary or secondary.
Under secondary glaucoma is understood blurred pupil and signs of atrophy of the optic nerve, which became another complication of ophthalmic diseases.
Types and stages of primary glaucoma
Primary glaucoma - the most common kind of the disease. It is open-and-closure.
The clinical symptoms of glaucoma include open-type slow progression of the disease, the absence of any discomfort in the patient, the appearance of bright circles effect at a late stage of the disease and gradually blurred vision. Open-angle glaucoma usually affects both eyes at once, but develops asymmetrically (at a different pace in both eyes).
Angle-closure glaucoma is diagnosed more often in women as predisposing factors for this type of disease are the small size of the eye. The signs of this type of glaucoma include the presence of acute attacks of visual loss. Under the influence of nervous shock, overwork or prolonged work in awkward positions during the attack, a sharp blurred vision, there may be pain in the eyes, nausea, vomiting. Then, the patient comes to the state preglaukomy period relative to the normal view.
Depending on the severity of glaucoma glaucoma allocate four stages:
- The characteristic symptom of glaucoma, the first (initial) stage - the normal bounds of a small distortion of peripheral vision.
- Symptom glaucoma second or advanced stage - expressed violations of the side view and a general narrowing of the field of view.
- The third advanced stage of glaucoma sign of disease appears only saving certain segments of the visual field.
- The fourth terminal stage of glaucoma is characterized by complete blindness.
The effectiveness of the treatment of glaucoma depends on the timely diagnosis of the disease. The leading role in the definition of indicators it is intracranial pressure using tonometry or elastotonomerii. The quality of the outflow of intraocular fluid in glaucoma study through the use of e-tonography.
High value in the diagnosis of the disease also have a method for measuring perimetry boundaries of view, as well as Gonioscopy. With the last name of the method studied the structure of the anterior chamber of the eye. Find out quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in the structure of the optic nerve allows the use of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope.
Each of these methods are highly informative so dynamically monitor the effectiveness of treatment of glaucoma may be applied only one of them.
Glaucoma treatment can be medical or surgical. Operations in glaucoma, in turn, are also of two kinds: conventional conducted using microsurgical scalpel or laser.
The basis for the medical treatment of glaucoma consists of three areas:
- therapy for reducing intraocular pressure
- improve the blood supply to the optic nerve and internal eye membranes,
- normalization of metabolism in tissues of the eye.
The leading role in the medical treatment of glaucoma has oftalmogipotenzivnaya therapy (reduction in IOP). The other two areas are complementary. For example, using a natural plant complex from Dr. Pankow for the treatment of eye diseases.
The use of conservative treatment of glaucoma shown only in the early stages of the disease. When glaucoma III-IV degree of inefficiency and drug therapy in relieving acute attacks of recommended surgery.
Laser surgery for glaucoma can eliminate obstacles to the outflow of intraocular fluid. The technique of laser surgery for glaucoma involves the use of equipment or iridectomy trabeculoplasty. Their essence in creating microburst local tissue rupture or application with subsequent scarring of burn.
The advantages of laser surgery for glaucoma include small period of rehabilitation, outpatient conditions and local anesthesia during the application procedure. The main disadvantage of laser operations in glaucoma is considered to be of limited effect. In the mature stage of glaucoma is used only radical surgery.
The disease is treated surgically using several kinds of methods:
- iridotsikloretraktsii et al.
Uniform standards in the application of a particular type of surgery for glaucoma is not. In each case, the type of surgery for glaucoma selected individually.
People's treatment of glaucoma
The prevalence has led to a huge amount of national methods for treating glaucoma. Some of them, such as health food, the use of sunglasses, breathing exercises, air procedures welcome the official medicine.
Lawfulness considered the recommendations of the national treatment of glaucoma, calling for the possibility of not tilt your head:
- do not wash the floor,
- do not wash,
- no weeding,
- do not lift weights, etc.
But it is also necessary to recognize that many methods of treating glaucoma folk remedies official medicine looks skeptical whether it extracts from duckweed, woodlice, lotion with aloe juice, honey instillation into the eyes, etc.