Iodine - is
vital for every individual trace element. First of all, it is necessary for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Therefore, while reducing or conversely an excess of iodine in the organism and changes its operation, but rather it is broken synthesis of thyroid hormones.
The daily intake of iodine should not exceed 150 mcg. This rule is slightly more for pregnant and lactating women: up to 175-200 mg \ day. For children, the rate is calculated on the basis of age.
Under laboratory conditions, it was confirmed that the intake of iodine to 500-1000 ug \ day for a long time does not change the functioning of the thyroid gland. Consumption of more than 1000 mg \ day often causes the development yodindutsirovannyh diseases. This is a fairly large group of diseases of the thyroid gland, accompanied by the development of hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
Drinking large amounts of iodine simultaneously extremely dangerous to humans.
Iodine poisoning called iodism. Most of the excess iodine in the body affects people engaged in the production with the use of iodine.
Yodizma may occur from inhalation of iodine vapor, long-term use of iodine drugs, hypersensitivity to iodine or individual intolerance.
Symptoms excess iodine.
Iodine poisoning can be acute or chronic.
Sharp develops when you receive large doses of iodine in a short time. Chronic poisoning may develop over the years, giving erased clinical picture.
As a result of acute poisoning may develop congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema, directly threatening the patient's life. However, these states are very rare. Most often the main symptoms of excess iodine are irritation of the mucous membranes or skin.
Symptoms of iodine excess:
- Irritation of the respiratory mucosa, which is manifested cough, tickling, the presence of mucous secretions from the nose.
- Conjunctival irritation: lacrimation, redness of the eyes. In some cases, the inflammatory process may be delayed. Develop chronic blepharitis, conjunctivitis, rarely cataract, optic nerve damage, eventually reduced vision.
- Drooling, as a result of irritation and swelling of the salivary glands.
- The defeat of the skin with an excess of iodine called yododerma. More common on the face, neck and limbs. It manifested in the form of acne accompanied by itching or burning. Acne elements tend to merge. After this painful form soft formation of blue-purple color up to 3 cm in diameter. Also
skin lesions can be in the form of urticaria, type erysipelas. One of the most severe forms of skin lesions with an excess of iodine in the body is nodular form yododermy. Upon contact with the skin in the form of iodine crystals may occur burns or dermatitis. Burns are deep enough. In some cases it is difficult to heal ulcers.
Rarer symptoms of excess iodine:
- Taste of metal in your mouth;
- A specific breath and staining of the mouth;
- Dizziness, headache;
- Confusion of consciousness;
- Burning and sore throat, hoarseness, thirst;
- The defeat of the gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea, and, as a result, weight loss, cramps, weakness;
- Toxic hepatitis with the following symptoms: pain in the right upper quadrant, yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes;
- Failure of the respiratory tract in any department: tracheitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, etc .;
- Kidney disease;
- The weakening of the body's defenses and, as a consequence, frequent acute respiratory viral infection, pneumonia, etc.
Diagnosis of excess iodine.
Diagnosis is simple and based on carefully collected history. Iodine poisoning often occurs in people who work in the company associated with the production, extraction of iodine, so that such poisoning could be a team.
If you suspect that excess iodine is determined by its level in the blood and urine.
Treatment of an excess of iodine.
In acute poisoning is cleaned skin, gastric lavage 5% sodium thiosulfate solution.
In chronic poisoning iodine eliminated the mechanism of iodine in the body (use with food, work in hazardous work).
In parallel, therapy aimed at correction of the thyroid gland and other organs and systems.
In case of violation of water-electrolyte exchange is conducted infusion therapy.