Diseases of the ear
At present we know a lot of diseases of the ears. However, most often it is possible to meet with the two: an inflammatory process in the middle or outer ear and sensorineural hearing loss. Accordingly, the symptoms of diseases of ears will also be varied.
Otitis media or ear infection
Otitis media - inflammation is localized in the ear. Infectious agents in diseases of the ears can be hemolytic streptococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as fungi and mycobacteria that cause such serious diseases as tuberculosis ear.
Otitis can be primary. However, it most often occurs as a complication of inflammation in other organs where the infection through the blood, lymph enters the ear. This is called otitis secondary. The most likely location of the primary focus of inflammation are the bodies of the nasopharynx. Often complicated: sore throat, scarlet fever, influenza, sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, etc. infection.
In the risk group are patients who in the past had microtrauma ear disorders, general or reduced local immunity, allergic predisposition, improper hygiene ears, overactive glands congenital ear canal, which leads to the emergence of cerumen.
Patients previously treated with drugs several pharmacological groups, are also at risk. Most often when applied cause complications such aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Under microtraumas understand how the mechanical effect on the ears (blows, bruises, bites) and the impact of thermal, chemical, acoustic (long or short strong sound), vibration, and barotrauma that occurs when sudden changes in atmospheric pressure.
Children contribute to the emergence of diseases of ears various foreign bodies: pebbles, buttons, peas, etc. Frequently such articles may remain in the ear for several days, and only when an otitis their presence is detected.
In adults, foreign bodies in the ear often fall in violation of the rules of hygiene. This is the wreckage of matches, wool, at least - the insects.
Symptoms of ear infections
The most common symptom of diseases of the ears - it's a pain. Its intensity is extremely variable from mild tingling to extreme intensity, disturbed sleep patient. The pain can give the eyes, jaw, temple, and cause diffuse headache on the side of the affected ear. Pain syndrome can dramatically increase when walking, swallowing, chewing.
Less common symptoms such as redness. It is not noticeable when viewing inflammation of the outer ear.
When the inflammatory process in the ear may occur obscheinfektsionnye symptoms: pyrexia, weakness, chilling, decreased appetite, fatigue and sleep disturbances.
When otitis media patients may feel the splash of blood transfusion or fluid in the ear cavity, especially pronounced when the position of the head.
In advanced cases, ear infections can cause discharge of different nature: putrid, festering, bloody, serous.
Symptoms of ear infections may also be the following:
- hearing loss;
- feeling of noise in the ear;
- syringmus (perception of the sound of his own voice in the ear mortgaged);
- deafness within any frequency;
At external examination revealed swelling, redness of the outer ear, crust or small bubbles in the outer ear canal, traces of scratching.
Palpation with pressure on the tragus or mastoid often painful.
Treatment of diseases of the ears
For the treatment of inflammatory ear appointed topical antibiotics and antiseptics. In marked violation of general condition, far come process and if otitis media is secondary, prescribe systemic antibiotics. Antibiotic selection should be handled by experts.
Fungal infections of the ears
The agents of fungal infections of ears are often yeast-like fungi. In many cases, the occurrence of fungal diseases of the ears is a beacon that in the body there is a certain kind of immune deficiency.
The most frequent complaint in the ear mycosis are liquid separation white, yellow, green. Patients concerned about noise in the ears, pruritus, sensation of ear stuffiness. Pain syndrome is usually absent. There may be hearing loss on the affected side, and dizziness.
The reasons that predispose to the emergence of fungal infection are similar to the reasons contributing to the development of otitis.
For treatment of fungal diseases, it is important to define the ears fungi species specificity. Thereafter prescribed antifungal drugs amphotericin B, natamycin, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine. At the same time it must be assigned antihistamines because Many fungi are highly allergens.
In the treatment of fungal diseases of the ears should be abolished antibiotics, as well as conduct immunokorrektiruyuschuyu and strengthening therapy.
Fungal infections are prone to recurrent course, and after a clinical cure is recommended to perform repeated mycological research.