Diverticulitis - is inflammation of one or more protrusions gryzhevidnyh wall of the colon or small intestine, called diverticula, arising on a background of infection.
The diverticula are formed in the process of development of the child in utero or are formed for various reasons, in their lifetime, most often in the elderly. In case of delay in the diverticula food residues produced fecal stones, provoking bacterial infections and their background diverticulitis. Inflammation of the diverticulum is limited to one or may spread to nearby tissues and organs, resulting in could be mezhkishechny abscess, peritonitis or retroperitoneal abscess.
In typical cases, the symptoms of diverticulitis appear as follows:
- Increased body temperature, fever;
- Chronic ache in the left lower abdomen or in the suprapubic region;
- Bloating, constipation or difficulty defecating;
- Constant nausea and vomiting.
Suspect the presence of a patient diverticulitis experienced surgeon may, at the initial examination, listening to the complaints of the patient and performing abdominal palpation. In some cases, the symptoms of diverticulitis can be mistaken for appendicitis clinical picture, so you need to make a panoramic X-ray image, an abdominal ultrasound or CT scan. After removal of acute inflammation is necessary to barium enema or colonoscopy.
The colon is often a place of localization of diverticula that provokes the appearance of intestinal diverticulitis. Developing this disease mainly in the elderly and senile age. In advanced economies, life expectancy has increased significantly as a result, a group at risk of diverticulitis bowel increased to 30% of the total population. Essential in the mass spread of the disease plays a significant depletion of the daily diet of vegetable fibers and roughage. The lack of these components leads to the formation of power constipation, colonic accumulation of faeces, which in turn increases the risk of intestinal diverticulitis.
Depending on the complexity of the disease, treatment of diverticulitis can be carried out by the following methods:
- Drug therapy;
- surgical intervention.
Easy diverticulitis is treated at home, appointed antibiotics, recommended rest and special diet consisting mainly of liquid food. After a few days of this treatment are usually the symptoms disappear. In the future, should strictly follow the prescriptions and recommendations of the attending physician, in order to avoid relapse.
In case of complications with obvious signs of infection requiring hospitalization. Patients prescribed antibiotics and intravenous fluids, bed rest and prohibit to eat and drink, and to improve the removal of painful symptoms.
If abdominal pain and fever are increasing, the doctor can decide on the need of surgery. The operation takes about 20% suffering from diverticulitis, as other treatments do not produce tangible results. In some cases, if there is a high risk of developing severe complications, surgery is recommended to conduct a preventive measure.
Emergency surgery is required in patients with peritonitis, intestinal perforation, massive bleeding. The purpose of this operation - removal of the affected portion of the small or large intestine as a source of diverticulitis.
In uncomplicated diverticulitis diet should contain foods rich in fiber, which will shorten the time of finding food in the intestine, accelerate the process of elimination and will help cleanse the body. The diet must include:
- Whole grain bread and bran;
- Cabbage, carrots, broccoli, cauliflower;
- Apples, grapefruit.
Should be excluded from the diet:
- Products that trigger swelling grapes, watermelon, all kinds of beans;
- Products with very crude fiber content: radish, pineapple, persimmon;
- Products that can linger in the diverticula: seeds, grains, nuts.
In cases of recurrent or acute diverticulitis diet consists exclusively of liquid food:
- Pureed soups;
- Compote of dried fruits;
- Decoctions of herbs;
- Various jelly;
In any case, the presence of symptoms of diverticulitis should immediately consult a doctor.