Brief description of the disease
Chronic glomerulonephritis - a kidney bilateral allergic disease, having the infectious character. In the course of disease is loss of nephrons - renal structures that filter urine. Chronic glomerulonephritis, whose symptoms often manifest themselves as a result of the progression of the acute form of the disease can also develop as a primary chronic process. The mechanism of renal tissue is not fully understood, but there is no doubt that the main cause of numerous complications is the lack of adequate treatment.
The forms of chronic glomerulonephritis:
Now allocate 4 forms of glomerulonephritis:
- latent - presence of protein in the urine, a transient increase in blood pressure;
- hypertension - high blood pressure continuously;
- nephrotic - a significant amount of protein in the urine, edema of the extremities. Chronic glomerulonephritis form is most common in children;
- Mixed - is characterized by a combination of two or more attributes form.
Chronic glomerulonephritis - symptoms and clinical picture
Swelling of the extremities, hematuria, hypertension - are the main symptoms, which manifest themselves glomerulonephritis. Treatment of chronic forms of the disease and the symptoms somewhat similar to the acute form, but have their own distinctive features. In particular, urine reveals a significant reduction in its density, and composition of the fluid are specific education - granular cylinders. Among the characteristic symptoms of the disease can be noted fatigue, high blood pressure, shortness of breath with little physical exertion and heart palpitations. In nephrotic glomerulonephritis blood pressure does not exceed the norm, but the swelling is significantly more.
With the gradual dying off of tissue from a patient develops kidney eclampsia, which is expressed in vomiting, headaches, convulsions and loss of consciousness. Chronic glomerulonephritis being treated with impaired or absent, it provokes the appearance of uremia. This disease is linked to pollution of the human body nitrogenous slags that time has not excreted in the urine because of irregularities in the work of the kidneys.
In severe stages of the disease state of the patient deteriorates. Chronic glomerulonephritis leads to muscle twitching, periodic loss of consciousness, tongue dry. In addition, on human rights, especially the mouth, it felt persistent smell of urine as urea begins to stand out through the pores of the body and the mucous membrane of the tongue. In some cases, visual acuity decreases uremia and affects the central nervous system, which in turn is expressed in human sleepiness and nerve seizures.
Chronic glomerulonephritis - treatment of the disease
Basic principles of treatment of chronic forms almost completely repeat a set of measures, as shown in the acute form. The patient was prescribed a strict diet and bed rest. At rest, a person must be at least 10-12 hours a day. To prevent the spread of the disease should be excluded hypothermia body, dress warmly and take care of the purchase of warm, waterproof shoes. In chronic glomerulonephritis excluded any exercise.
The diet is based on restricting the amount of salt entering the body, taking vitamins and temporary renunciation of food rich in protein. In the case of high blood pressure patients receiving prescribed antihypertensives and corticosteroids in combination with hydrochlorothiazide and lasix. During acute attacks of renal disorder is acceptable to use bleeding from a vein (not more than 500 ml of blood). These patients should be under close medical supervision to prevent new attacks.
When uremia patient again shown to bed and food containing the minimum amount of protein. It is better to eat foods rich in carbohydrates. With regard to drinking regime. If chronic glomerulonephritis has not led to a significant impairment of renal function, the patient is useful to give sugar water with lemon, weak tea from a red root, black currant juice. The positive impact on the process of treatment and will have salt as vomiting patient loses a large amount of sodium chloride.
Since uremic urea is released through the skin, you need to constantly take care of the skin. Also, take precautionary measures against the formation of bedsores.