Brief description of the disease
Cholera is classified as acute intestinal diseases. Cholera begins to develop by ingestion of water or food contaminated by bacteria from the family of Vibrio cholerae. The disease has a short incubation period (often already apparent within days after infection), is accompanied by unpleasant symptoms, if left untreated, can lead to death. Such severe consequences due to the fact that cholera produces an enterotoxin that causes numerous violations in the digestive tract and leads to severe dehydration due to diarrhea ongoing. Cholera often provoke severe vomiting, during which also disrupted water-salt metabolism.
Cholera is one of quarantine infections
. When boiling cholera die in a matter of seconds, but for themselves in favorable conditions, they multiply very rapidly
. In the environment of cholera bacteria from faeces fall and vomit sick person, and then hit the healthy water, food, contact-household or mixed by
. High susceptibility to cholera has often been the cause of large-scale epidemics
. As an example, in 1992, when insufficient and ineffective prevention of cholera has led to the emergence of more 100,000 infected people in southern India and Bengal
. In general, during the existence of civilization, this infection has claimed millions of lives and continues to regularly collect a terrible toll in Africa and South-East Asia
. Severe epidemic situation in these regions is not accidental
. The fact that cholera, and symptoms usually occur after eating contaminated water or food, develops most rapidly in those places where there are problems with disinfection of fresh water and timely medical
As cholera gets into the human body?
When outbreaks of cholera bacteria have become a source of feces of infected people. In most cases cholera embryos found in coastal waters and salt water, where they penetrate into the urban sewage and other water sources. Note also that accidental contact with the ill person does not lead to cholera infection because the disease is not transmitted directly. However, cholera can easily penetrate into the body in the process of sharing personal hygiene items, so compliance elementary precautions are still needed.
Symptoms of cholera
Just note that the symptoms of cholera are very diverse. In some cases, the diagnosis of cholera treatment is generally not required (this includes the situation with the so-called asymptomatic carriage), while in others the cholera leads to a serious condition and the death.
The incubation period is rarely lasts more than 5-6 days. Onset is always sharp, with pronounced symptoms of cholera:
- diarrhea, which is amplified in the night and morning hours - a chair while watery, has no unpleasant odor, eventually takes the form of "rice water";
- abundant gush vomiting;
- disruption of the major systems of the body, the intensity of which depends on the degree of dehydration;
- lack of appetite;
- weight loss;
- constant thirst.
If it is suspected that a person develops cholera, diagnostics, among other things, conducted on the basis of the clinical picture of the disease. Experts identify four degrees of cholera:
- I degree - degidrotatsii is weak;
- Grade II - patients with marked drop in the liquid up to 6% of body weight, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, reduction in the number of red blood cells. Patients complain of dizziness, dry mouth, thirst, severe weakness. In addition, they turn blue fingers appear jerking of muscles, hoarseness;
- III degree - with severe cholera treatment involves constant monitoring of blood pressure and body temperature, as is quite possible sudden collapse of vital systems. Loss of fluid reaches 9% of body weight, patients can completely stop urine. In the blood of infected people marked decrease in the concentration of potassium and chlorine;
- IV level - critical fluid loss, development of the state of prostration, shock. Patients sharpened features, appearance of dark circles around the eyes, the skin becomes bluish tint and is sticky to the touch. Heart sounds are muffled, it has been a sharp drop in blood pressure, decrease in body temperature to 34 degrees. This cholera, the symptoms of which show numerous failures in the basic systems, often ends with the death of the patient.
If time does not see a doctor, even easy, cholera can lead to numerous complications: abscesses, pneumonia, phlegmon, erysipelas, and phlebitis. For this reason, you should carefully monitor the emergence of alarming symptoms of cholera after drinking food or water, and immediately contact the medical facilities for accurate diagnosis.
Diagnosis of cholera
In the diagnosis of cholera infection recognition is based on characteristic clinical and epidemiological anamnesis. To confirm cholera used bacteriological tests of stool, stomach contents, and vomit. In addition, patients are prescribed physical and chemical laboratory blood tests.
Treatment of cholera
If you suspect an infection, patients are hospitalized. With obvious signs of dehydration rehydration therapy conducted immediately in the amounts that are determined by the patient's condition. Usually remediation involves the oral administration of fluid. It can also be delivered to the stomach through a thin tube, if a person is not able to drink on their own. Within an hour of cholera patients should eat at least 1-1, 5 liters. liquid. If the disease is accompanied by severe vomiting, the treatment involves the compulsory introduction of cholera Polionny solutions into the blood.
After normalization of the patient's condition continued correction of losses. Water and salt therapy complete only after a bowel movement will normal fecal character, and the number will exceed the amount of urine feces. After the cessation of vomiting in the treatment of cholera appointed tetracycline or chloramphenicol intravenously. The treatment of cholera lasts for 5 days with a 6-hour cycle. With timely treatment to the doctor and adequate assistance to cholera treated successfully without any serious complications.
Prevention of cholera is in compliance with sanitary regulations, thorough washing of the products subject to the established technological standards in catering. It is also strongly recommended for the prevention of cholera you refuse the use of raw water from the tap.