Brief description of the disease
Cardiac asthma - a complication of hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, heart attack, heart defects.
Looks like cardiac asthma attack of breathlessness and suffocation, provoked the stagnation of blood in the pulmonary vessels, the complexity of its outflow into the left ventricle of the heart.
Cardiac asthma is developed due to the narrowing of the left atrioventikulyarnogo holes or left ventricular heart failure, myocarditis, acute myocardial infarction, extensive cardiosclerosis, heart aortic defects, mitral regurgitation, left ventricular aneurysm, paroxysmal large pressure rise, accompanied by excessive stress left ventricular myocardium.
The reason for the attack in the daytime is usually emotional or physical activity, high blood pressure, stenokardicheskie attack. In rare cases, asthma occurs after a heavy drinking or eating, but often attack develops at night during sleep.
Symptoms of cardiac asthma
The main symptom of cardiac asthma - paroxysmal dyspnea, in which dominates the extended noisy breath.
Symptoms of cardiac asthma occurring during the day: palpitations, chest tightness, immediately before the attack.
If you develop asthma at night, the patient wakes up from lack of air, difficulty breathing, tightness in the chest, dry cough. On the face of sweat appears, the patient is experiencing anxiety and fear. During the attack usually breathe by mouth, it is difficult to talk, there is a palpable need for oxygen.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis during an attack carried out by assessing symptoms of cardiac asthma. Of great importance is the differential diagnosis with asthma (especially in the elderly).
Set the origin of asthma is very important because when providing emergency care in cardiac asthma cupping use other medicines are not used in bronchial asthma.
The physician must listen to the patient's heart. For this type of asthma is characterized gallop over the pulmonary trunk is tapped two accent colors. The pulse may be weak content may develop tachycardia, exhale is straightforward and listen to distant wheezing. Variations can be seen on an electrocardiogram: visible coronary insufficiency, rhythm disturbance.
With typical symptoms to diagnose cardiac asthma is not difficult, but if there are bronchospasm, the patient or his friends were asked for the patient's susceptibility to allergies, the presence of chronic bronchitis or other lung diseases.
Treatment of cardiac asthma
Treatment begins with emergency care in cardiac asthma, which is primarily directed at reducing the excitability of the respiratory center, the load on the small circle of blood. To this solution was subcutaneously administered morphine 1% (or 2% solution pantopon) with a solution of 1% atropine. If expressed tachycardia (greater 100ud / minute) instead of atropine administered pipolfen, suprastin or diphenhydramine - 1 ml into the muscle. If the patient has a low pressure, morphine (pantopon) replace sodium promedola 2%, which is injected subcutaneously. Complementing its caffeine, camphor. You can not enter morphine and in violation of the respiratory rate, shortness of breath, which decreases the frequency and when the origin of the attack remains unclear (with asthma can not be administered morphine).
As an emergency admission in cardiac asthma used cupping: release 200-300ml of blood. They should not be bleeding under reduced pressure. In this case as well, if the veins are expressed badly or necessary to re-bled, his feet applied tourniquets, compressing the veins (not artery - pulse should be palpable). Wiring hold no more than 30 minutes, remove them gradually weakening at intervals of a few minutes. Exclude tourniquet if the patient has swelling of extremities, bleeding diathesis, thrombosis, heart attack, stenokardicheskie attack.
Also, stopping the attack, when the pulse is not less 60ud / minute (and if the patient is taking a drug containing digitalis) imposed solution strophanthin 0, 05% - 0, 5 ml. The drug is usually administered as soon as bleeding (if performed), the same needle. Often the drug aminophylline supplement - means effective when mixed with symptoms of cardiac asthma and bronchial origin, in mitral stenosis. Enter eufillin low pressure is impossible.
Treatment of cardiac asthma continue implementing measures to reduce congestion in the lungs. To do this, intravenous 40mg Lasix (furosemide) or 50g uregita (ethacrynic acid). Occasionally, patients with hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis good effect is observed after administration of nitroglycerin.
All stages of the treatment of cardiac asthma is conducted against a background of constant oxygen therapy. When depression of the respiratory center is administered camphor, lobeline, kordiamin. The patient during the attack put the maximum rest. It can not be transported, all necessary procedures for the treatment of cardiac asthma is carried out on the spot. Hospitalization is required only if you stop the attack failed.
Prevention of disease
To effectively prevent attacks of any immediate and proper treatment of the underlying disease, which can include fluid restriction, salt, taking diuretics, cardiac agents.