General characteristics of the disease
Brucellosis - an infectious disease that is caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Infection is characterized by a long, chronic course, lesions of osteoarticular system, the nervous system and heart. The causative agent of brucellosis is common in the natural environment, is resistant to low temperatures, keeps the ability to reproduce even during prolonged stay in water and soil. The food of live bacteria 2 (cow's milk) to 5 (frozen meat) months. By using special equipment Brucella die within a few minutes.
As a rule, brucellosis is detected in animals, meat and milk that we eat. In humans brucellosis pathogen penetrates through the mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory systems. Brucellosis is also possible to bring through fresh scrapes, bruises and other injuries. It is especially characteristic for those whose work is related to the treatment of the skin and fur, or to care for sick animals. At risk are veterinarians, shepherds, milkmaids and animal science.
What happens after infection?
Once inside the body, the Brucella quickly spread throughout the body via the lymphatic channels and blood vessels
. Soon new foci of infection occur in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes
. At the same time brucellosis in humans affects the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and genitals
. In response to the bacteria included klendusity, but usually, the immune system is unable to provide bacteriological purification of blood and lymph nodes due to permanent transformation pathogens
. This means the diagnosis of brucellosis must be treated not at home, and in the relevant departments of clinics
. Otherwise, brucellosis develop into a chronic form, and to cope with it will be much harder
. We also note that often accompanied by chronic brucellosis immunopathological manifestations, provoking the emergence and growth of a "bouquet" of other diseases
Brucellosis - symptoms and clinical picture
During the primary latent brucellosis in humans practically does not manifest itself. Characteristic symptoms of brucellosis appear only after the incubation period (1-5 weeks) when the disease or ostrosepticheskuyu flows in the chronic form.
Acute brucellosis in humans has the following symptoms:
- fever (high temperature can be kept up to 3 weeks);
- excessive sweating;
- increase in peripheral lymph nodes.
In some cases, treatment of brucellosis in humans ends with complete recovery, but often the reverse process occurs when the disease becomes septic metastatic. In this case, the patient suffers from regular bouts of fevers, severe intoxication, diffuse joint pain, sleep disorders, headaches. Brucellosis symptoms which indicate failure of the main systems of the body, leading to serious complications: myocarditis, meningitis, hepatitis, endocarditis, miscarriage in early pregnancy. After 6 months (this period is largely conditional) acute form of chronic brucellosis flows.
First of all, chronic brucellosis in humans is characterized by focal lesions. Most often, the infection affects the large joints - hips, elbows, knees. Also, patients are concerned the following symptoms of brucellosis:
- persistent pain in the morning;
- deformation of joints and junctions;
- neuritis, radiculitis and other disorders of the nervous system;
- may occur: meningitis, lesions of the optic and auditory nerves, miningoentsefalit.
In the chronic form of brucellosis in humans focal changes in the genitals often lead to infertility in women and reduced sexual function in men. After a while the infection is gradually transformed into remission, but leaves behind irreversible changes in the musculoskeletal system. For this reason, patients with a diagnosis of chronic brucellosis (diagnosis of the disease must be carried out only by experienced physicians) require hospitalization and adequate treatment that will reduce the risk of disability.
Brucellosis - Treatment of diseases
When ostrosepticheskoy form in the treatment of brucellosis patients are assigned:
- causal treatment;
- antibiotics tetracycline group - rifampicin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin. Recommended formulations are well penetrate into the cells, for example, doxycycline, orally or intramuscularly streptomycin;
- physiotherapy and spa treatment (not earlier than 6 months after the disappearance of clinical symptoms).
When the diagnosis of chronic brucellosis treatment is based on the use of restorative measures and vaccine therapy. Forecast favorable in most cases, however, it is worth remembering that brucellosis often leads to disability.
Prevention of infection is aimed at reducing the incidence of livestock and livestock brucellosis. To this end, experts conduct sanitary-veterinary measures, in which the causative agent of brucellosis are almost always dies. Specific preventive maintenance is to use antibrucellar vaccines. They regularly do not only animals, but also employees of livestock, meat processing plants and staff members of other professions, related to the processing of meat or treating skins and fur.