Acute respiratory infections
What is ARD and what is their difference from SARS?
The term ARI (acute respiratory infections) - is the name of not one but a number of infectious diseases that affect the upper respiratory tract and is transmitted by airborne droplets. With respect to diseases that have a viral nature, used another term - ARI (acute respiratory infection), however, it is worth noting that in most cases, acute respiratory infections also develop as a result of activity of viral infections. Given this fact, it can be concluded that both the term and the ARI ARI represent virtually the same group of diseases.
The most common acute respiratory infections in children and adults are provoked by influenza virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus and MS infection. In everyday life, they are called in one word - "cold". A child who goes to kindergarten or school, ARI observed an average of 5-6 times a year. Children with weakened immune infections affect twice as often. Every year in Russia recorded about 45 million. Cases of SARS and influenza, and 30% of them falls on children.
Researchers estimate and economic damage caused by acute respiratory infections. As a result of diseases of the working population and a free vaccination in the prevention of acute respiratory disease every year, our state loses about 15 billion. Rubles.
Mechanisms of development ARI
A distinctive feature of all ARI - symptoms that indicate epithelial lesions of the upper respiratory tract. It is here that there is an accumulation of pathogens, their primary sedimentation and reproduction. Later on virus activity leads to the development of inflammatory processes and various complications associated with disorders of the vital systems of the body. From person to person ARD transmitted by airborne droplets, and in some cases the source of infection may serve animals.
ARD - symptoms and possible complications
Since infections affect the upper respiratory tract, we can identify a number of ARI symptoms typical of all types:
- sore throat;
- runny nose;
- feeling of weakness;
- muscle aches;
Some diseases are acute respiratory infections lead to increased lymph nodes, clogged bronchial tubes, chest pain, pharyngitis and pneumonia development. If the diagnosis of acute respiratory disease treatment was inadequate or not carried out, patients face the risk of serious complications. The most common infections lead to:
- clouding of consciousness;
- hemorrhage in the internal organs;
- disorders of the peripheral nerves;
- suffocation due to narrowing of the larynx;
- exacerbations of asthma;
- severe pain when swallowing food.
Especially dangerous are acute respiratory infections during pregnancy because they can threaten the health of the baby, cause irreversible changes in the fetus or premature birth.
Treatment of acute respiratory infections
Since the ARD include the whole group of different infections, there are many drugs and techniques designed to cure patients. Note also that the mild and moderate forms of ARI, as a rule, do not require specific treatment, but doctors recommend the use of "home" means to the relief of the most acute symptoms. In severe disease patients showed emergency treatment, while bacterial ARI - antibiotics.
If fever should be selective when choosing antipyretics and use them only when the temperature rises above 39 degrees, the patient feels severe muscle and headaches, the presence of severe heart disease. Acute respiratory infections in children treated with paracetamol, which is considered the safest drug. Aspirin, analgin, phenacetin and antipyrine - contraindicated, as they have serious side effects. In addition, please note that it is recommended to take antipyretics not constant, but only if the new temperature rises.
To improve nasal breathing used vasoconstrictor drops. They are suitable for use in the first three days after the disease as long-term use can enhance rhinitis. If the baby is more than 6 years, the drops can be replaced by nasal sprays.
Bronchial obstruction requires urgent measures, particularly when it is accompanied by rapid breathing, breathing difficulties, anxiety and increased PCO2 due to lower PO2. Preparations for removing the obstruction introduced via a nebulizer or inhaler.
Antitussives indicated for dry cough. The most commonly used: glaucine, butamirata, oxeladin and other narcotic drugs. Expectorants should be taken with caution. In the treatment of acute respiratory disease in children, they can cause an allergic reaction and severe vomiting. When long-lasting cough sick ARI appointed anti-inflammatory drugs: inhaled steroids fenspiride, fyuzafyunzhin.
Treatment of acute respiratory infections in pregnancy
Perhaps every doctor agrees that the expectant mother is better not to take any medicine, but let ARI to chance is also not the best option. A woman should always consult with your physician, who will choose the safest medicines. In the treatment of acute respiratory infections in pregnant women can be taken: a multivitamin, products based on paracetamol, bioparoks, Aqua Maris, pinosol, cough syrups, and various folk remedies, for example, a decoction of chamomile, sage or eucalyptus. Strictly contraindicated almost all antibiotics, aspirin, dietary supplements, galazolin, Naphthyzinum, ambraksol, calendula tincture.
Prevention of ARI
Every child will get sick ARI, despite all the tricks of the parents, but you can minimize the amount of disease and make sure that the infection is not serious complications. To this should be tempered children, provide them with proper, nutritious food, take care of the child's physical development, strengthen the immune system. During the annual outbreaks of ARI, it is desirable to minimize travel on public transport and increase the walks. Prevention of ARI with antibiotics is not effective, there are not hard to us from the TV screens all kinds of "experts".