Brief description of the disease
Acute pyelonephritis - an infectious-inflammatory disease characterized by an acute course and losing the kidney and renal pelvis of the kidney. The disease occurs both in itself and is a consequence of existing kidney disease.
Symptoms of acute pyelonephritis
- chills, excessive sweating;
- high fever;
- severe pain in the lumbar region and the joints;
- discomfort in the area of the kidneys and hypochondria.
Acute pyelonephritis - the treatment of the disease
Typically, patients require hospitalization. Basic principles of treatment - bed rest, drinking plenty of fluids, medical methods, a special diet. Pyelonephritis (diet appointed the first day of treatment) associated with intoxication, so patients recommended drinking plenty of fluids, fresh vegetables, fruits and berries. Later on the standard diet includes dairy and vegetable dishes. Energy value of the diet should not exceed 3200 kcal per day.
After analyzing samples of blood and urine doctor decides on the use of a group of antibiotics. Acute pyelonephritis, treatment is difficult because of the possible occurrence of severe complications, requires an integrated approach, so different groups used antibiotics (fluoroquinolone have the most effective means) in conjunction with nitroksolinovoy acid and nitrofuran drugs. Antibiotic therapy lasts up to 6 weeks to acute pyelonephritis is not passed in the chronic form. This period must be maintained even against the background that the full recovery of the patient usually occurs as early as 4 weeks.
If a person develops secondary acute pyelonephritis, treatment is aimed at addressing the underlying disease. It should be borne in mind that secondary form often occurs on the background of purulent processes, kidney stones and disturbance of outflow of urine, which often require surgical intervention.
There are also complications such as:
- apostematozny nephritis - kidney capsule appearance in the large number of small pustules;
- abscess - purulent fusion of the kidney;
- carbuncle kidney - education in kidney tissue purulent necrotic focus.
Acute pyelonephritis in children
At an early age the disease occurs with some features due to morphological immaturity of the genitourinary system and the child prone to severe leakage of inflammation.
The initial stage of the disease occur rapidly. Children appear hyperthermia, toxemia, exsicosis, agitation, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and restlessness before or after urination. The disease spreads quickly and affects not only the kidneys but also liver, adrenal glands, the central nervous system, causing numerous complications including sepsis, nephritis, kidney carbuncle, necrosis of the renal papilla.
All existing methods of treatment involve the fight against infection and intoxication, as well as increased reactivity of the organism, and the restoration of normal urodynamics. If a child diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis, children's diet dietician assigns the first day of treatment. It is necessary to limit or completely eliminate from the diet of peppers, onions, sausage, coffee and other products that irritate. Will be useful fruits, vegetables, berries (including watermelons), a large amount of liquid. Children at an early age we recommend that the transfusion, rehydration and detoxification therapy. These measures prescribed in the event that acute pyelonephritis in children occurs with severe complications or disease threatens to progress to a chronic form.
Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy
According to the frequency of occurrences of acute pyelonephritis in pregnant ahead of all other diseases of the urinary system. This fact is explained by the peculiarities of the body of the pregnant woman and the impact that has on the activity of the fruit of the urinary tract.
According to current estimates, the acute form of the disease occurs in 6-10% of pregnant women. If the normal woman's body is more or less successfully resist infection, then during pregnancy weaken defense mechanisms. For example, there is a relaxation of muscles visceral mother decreased tone of the bladder, ureter and urethra, allowing infection quickly and easily penetrate into the body.
Treatment of acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy involves antibiotics. It is necessary to take into account the fact that most of the existing drugs are dangerous to the fetus. In the first trimester it is recommended to use semi-synthetic penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin). In the second and third trimester of them, you can add macrolides (azithromycin and erythromycin). In no case can not be used aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and cephalosporins, since the drugs these groups cause fetal toxicosis.
The course of the treatment of acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is 7-10 days. In the absence of positive dynamics of the doctors are considering the need to install a catheter or stent until the end of pregnancy, that will take urine and exclude the possibility of complications.