The functional unit of the kidney - a nephron, which consists of a plurality of capillary glomeruli. Here, there are processes of filtration of urine. And the process of reuptake for subsequent elimination occurs in the tubules. In each human kidney has about a million nephrons. When fail 90% of nephrons, renal failure begins, in which the kidneys can not cope with normal load.
Renal failure, the reasons
The system bloodstream by the kidneys are the organs of the peripheral. In any stressful situations happening centralization of circulation. First of all, oxygen and nutrients are supplied vital organs: the heart - the brain - light. Despite the importance of the kidneys, they are "overboard" and receive a minimal amount of blood. Therefore, the kidneys are considered the "shock organs".
Virtually any prolonged stressful situation somehow affects the urinary system. Renal failure has the following reasons:
- The shock of any nature;
- The collapse - a sharp decrease in blood pressure;
- Traumatic damage to the kidneys;
- Acute renal parenchyma lesions in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis);
- Damage or removal of a solitary kidney;
- Acute poisoning organism of any nature: from natural poisons to drugs;
- Diseases that lead to the disruption of the flow of urine;
- Late preeclampsia;
- Tumor kidney disease.
By centralizing circulation kidney nephrons "off" from the general circulation, and blood passes over an open reserve capillaries, bypassing the filtration step. When kidney glomerular capillaries are destroyed, resulting in acute renal failure, the symptoms of which are the main functions of the organs - excretion.
Renal failure symptoms
When affected this or that body, the symptoms do not indicate failure or lack of its functions. Since the kidney is removed from the blood by the liver neutralized substance when acute renal failure, all the metabolites will continue to circulate blood throughout the body, including the brain. On it are specific toxins, primarily ketone bodies. Patient marked disorders of consciousness, from stupor to coma. Changes mood: euphoria or there, or - depression. No appetite, but there is vomiting, which does not bring any relief. As a compensatory response, there is diarrhea - excessive fluid is discharged through the gastrointestinal tract. There are systemic edema, which differ from the rapid increase of heart - just a few hours.
Acute renal failure is primarily manifested basic, cardinal symptoms:
If oliguria urine is less than 400 ml per day. If anuria stands 50 ml per 24 hours.
Stage renal disease
In acute renal insufficiency, there are three successive stages:
- The reductive.
In the initial stage of the disease manifestations are causal in nature. If this is a shock or poisoning, primarily observed symptoms of shock or intoxication. Common symptoms of weakness does not directly indicate that develops renal failure to be treated at this time often not available.
If oliguria has a distinct picture of the disease, so to take emergency measures. Uses drugs that improve blood flow to the kidneys. Restores the volume of circulating blood. Held fight edema: the infusion of salt and protein solutions. Diuretics when the second phase is not used. Stimulation of urination has no pathogenetic studies as diuretics do not improve blood supply to the nephrons.
The reduction stage is characterized by polyuria. Larger amounts of urine indicates that the filtering effect of renal function. Renal failure is terminated, thus returning to normal digestive, respiratory and locomotor system. If a person is in a coma, consciousness returns to him. In this period the therapeutic measures aimed at replenishing fluid loss.
Recovery of renal function is dependent on the impact of damaging factors. Treatment of the final-stage renal disease is carried out in outpatient clinics, under the control of indicators of urine.
Renal failure symptoms in children
In children, the disease occurs more rapidly than adults. This is due to the anatomical and physiological characteristics and the reasons for which developing renal failure in children of all ages:
- The neonatal period - thrombosis kidney or disseminated intravascular coagulation of blood;
- From infancy to three years - hemolytic uremic syndrome - a disease associated with blood system;
- Preschool and school age - glomerulonephritis or acute pyelonephritis.
Treatment depends on the cause of the disease, but all of the procedures are performed just like adults. Only change the dosage of medication.
Chronic renal failure symptoms
During the chronic renal failure is manifested not only dysuric disorders and observed violations of renal function:
- Increased blood pressure;
- Reduced hemoglobin;
- Lose calcium, osteoporosis develops;
- Changes of myocardial contractile function.
Usually, chronic renal failure, treatment is constantly forced to pass, in the department of hemodialysis.