Burn eye injury is the anterior part of the eye, which occurred due to excessive temperature, chemical or radiation exposure to the eye. The most common thermal burn burning particles, chemical burns and welding. With burns eye suffers primarily conjunctiva and skin of the eyelids, and then the cornea, lacrimal paths and deeper structures of the eye up to the rear of its departments.
Degree burns to eyes
There are four degrees of burns to eyes.
- First degree. Skin eyelids swelling, hyperemic, conjunctiva hyperemia, damage only the top layer of the cornea - swelling of the epithelial layer or the erosion.
- Second degree. Blisters on the skin of the eyelids, the mucous membrane of whitish areas of dead tissue, the cornea is cloudy. It damaged several surface layers of the cornea to medium.
- Third degree. Deep skin lesions age, no bubbles, the site of damage, dry dark scab damaged conjunctiva and has a grayish-yellowish hue, the cornea is damaged to the deeper layers, it loses its transparency and becomes dull (a symptom of frosted glass).
- The fourth degree. Necrosis of tissue and conjunctiva century. The cornea is destroyed to a depth of layers of porcelain and a distinctive look. When fourth-degree burns may complete destruction of the cornea, and the defeat of deeper lying structures of the eye - the vitreous, lens, etc.
Thermal burns to eyes
It burns your eyes accompanied by severe pain, tearing, and swelling of the conjunctiva tissue century. Vision is also reduced, but to determine the extent of its reduction in the acute phase is not possible, because prevents tearing. With burns of the third and fourth degree tearing may not be due to damage to the lacrimal system.
Eye burns welding
The medical name for eye burns welding - elektrooftalmiya. Damaging factor in this case is the intense ultraviolet radiation. A similar burn can be climbers in bright sunlight reflected from snow or medical staff present at Kvartsevanie. Natural, solar ultraviolet radiation, passing through the ozone layer of the atmosphere, losing a tough part of the spectrum, and does not have damaging effects, except for high altitudes, where the layer of the atmosphere is less.
The main symptom of eye burns welding and related burns is an intense pain in the eyes, in the absence or weak expression signs of burns. Symptoms grow over 8 hours. It appears lacrimation, photophobia, spots before the eyes, blepharospasm. Edematous and hyperemic conjunctiva, the cornea is damaged.
Eye burns welding causes reversible changes, which take place in a few days. The long-term consequences are usually no choice.
Chemical eye burns
Chemical eye burns may occur when exposed to acid or alkali. Chemical eye burns acid has an effect similar to thermal burn eyes. The depth of the eye disease is dependent on the concentration and time of exposure to acid. In place of influence affected the cornea, there is land necrosis. Because of the intense lacrimation acid is spread throughout the eye, although in a somewhat diluted concentration. Necrosis occurs on the type of coagulation, necrotic tissue demarcated from healthy.
Alkali chemical burn eye occurs much more difficult. Alkali is liquefactive necrosis, in which proteins are not coagulated, and dissolved, and the defeat of spreading both in breadth and depth. However, the impact on the nerves alkali damages them, and pain intensity is much less than chemical burns acid. As a result, the depth and severity of alkali chemical burn eyes do not meet the low pain reaction, which can be confusing and lead to an underestimation of the severity of the burn. Also, exposure to caustic in deep tissues, where it is difficult to remove, may last considerably longer than the acid which is delimited coagulated tissue. Chemical eye burns may increase alkali, penetrating deeper and deeper, and hitting more and more tissue for several days after the removal of traumatic agent.
First aid for burns Eye
First aid for burns is to the eye as quickly as possible removal of damaging substances. If the eye came burning particles, despite the spasm, you should try to open the eyes and pull it out. First aid for burns the eyes with a chemical agent, acid or alkali is immediate and copious rinsing with water. Before the arrival of the ambulance may be given an anesthetic.
Treatment of eye burns
Treatment is carried out in the burn eyes ophthalmology ward. Suitable anti-inflammatory therapy, as well as tools that contribute to the regeneration of tissues. In the third and fourth degree damage need surgical treatment of eye burns, during which dead tissue is removed. Eye burns first and second degree, as a rule, do not lead to loss of vision. Third degree burns of the eye, depending on the burn area may lead to a loss or reduction of that require corneal transplants. When fourth-degree burns usually occur loss of vision, and must be complex, Sustainable Integrated and phased surgical treatment of eye burns and post-burn scars for a partial restoration of vision in cases where at least the deep structures of the eye are stored.