Hodgkin's disease - a malignant tumor formed by cells of the lymphoid tissue.
Brief description of the disease
Hodgkin's disease is most commonly diagnosed in children, second and third peaks of disease activity accounted for 20 and 50 years old.
There are four stages of Hodgkin's disease, which depend on the extent of the tumor:
The first stage (IE) - localized swelling in the lymph nodes on the same site or in one organ outside the lymph nodes.
The second stage (IIE) - lymph nodes are affected in two or more sections or one body on one side of the diaphragm.
The third step (III) - affected by the nodes on both sides of the diaphragm. Sometimes the damage goes to the spleen (IIIS). In the third stage of Hodgkin's disease may damage the top of the peritoneum - Stage III (1) or nodal involvement in the pelvis, along the aorta - Stage III (2).
The fourth stage - in addition to the tumor lymph nodes affect the intestines, kidneys, bone marrow, liver and other internal organs.
The letter E in the designation stage Hodgkin's disease means that the disease has spread to tissues and organs located near the large lymph nodes, and the letter S - that struck the spleen. If the diagnosis of the stage next to the name is the letter A - this means that the patient has no symptoms, and the letter B means that the weight loss observed with heavy sweat, fever.
Causes of disease
The cause of Hodgkin's disease in children and adults is not revealed until now, even though the disease was first described back in 1832 by Dr. Hodgkin (the second name of the disease - Hodgkin's disease).
But some experts believe that may cause lymphoma Epstein-Barr virus, which causes infectious mononucleosis: it is often found in the tumor cells. Presumably this virus leads to mutations of lymphocytes and their growth begins to grow uncontrollably.
Symptoms of Hodgkin's disease
As with a conventional lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease the first characteristic symptom - increase in cervical lymph nodes, lymph nodes in the groin and armpits. It is noted that the nodes are not painful and the size of their after antibiotic therapy does not decrease.
Most affected lymphoid tissue in the chest and characteristic symptom of infection in this case, - shortness of breath, cough, caused by compression of the bronchi and lungs.
Secondary symptoms of Hodgkin's disease:
- temperature rise;
- digestive disorders;
- excessive sweating;
- weight reduction.
Diagnosis of the disease
For the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease in children, adults, primarily carried out a medical examination, blood was taken for biochemical and general analysis. Damaged lymph node biopsy: microscopic study a small sample of the tumor, it is determined whether there is in it granulomas and assess their condition.
Once lymphoma is confirmed, conduct radiation diagnosis - magnetic resonance and computer tomography, X-rays. So determined stage Hodgkin's disease.
Treatment of Hodgkin's disease
Methods of treatment of Hodgkin's disease are different depending on the stage of the disease. For the treatment of the first and second (A) steps used radiotherapy, which if necessary complement chemotherapy.
For the treatment of Hodgkin's disease at stages IIB, IIIA chemotherapy and radiotherapy combined mandatory.
The third step (B) and the fourth step is carried out 6-8 cycles of conventional chemotherapy.
If, despite the initiation of treatment, the prognosis unfavorable Hodgkin's disease, chemotherapy is used vysokodozirovannuyu and bone marrow transplantation.
The sooner will be scheduled and carried out the treatment, the better the prognosis of Hodgkin's disease. Even in the fourth and final stage of the process is great survival - 75%. If we take global statistics, the treatment of Hodgkin's disease leads to recovery in 80% of cases.
Prevention of disease
Due to the fact that the successful prediction of Hodgkin's disease depends on its stage, including preventive measures to prevent the disease is not in last place are the annual medical examination of children and adults. Identify Hodgkin in the early stages helps to standard fluoroscopy.
Since chlamydia is often found in children from an early age should be the child's temper, protected from excessive exposure to UV rays, radiation, chemicals, spending time treatment of any infections and their prevention standard.
Elderly for preventing Hodgkin's disease should limit electrotherapy, physiotherapy some procedures.