Among all the known problems of speech is the most common dyslalia. Most often it occurs in childhood and is different defects pronunciation of sounds of the native language - distortions, substitutions, mixing until their complete absence in the speech. However, there is a fairly broad view that dyslalia children - a transient phenomenon that goes with age. However, this is characteristic of speech disorders and adults. In most cases, the main "root" of the problem should be sought still a child. Subsequently defective zvukoproiznoshenija often has a very adverse effect on the rest of his life.
All dyslalia potential causes can be divided into two groups:
- Organic. Violation pronunciation is due to any abnormality in the structure of articulation apparatus - teeth, jaws, tongue, palate. It can be both congenital and acquired defects: lack of teeth, malocclusion, short hyoid ligament, high arch palate. Any of these anomalies can lead to speech defects inherent dyslalia;
- Socio-biological. This child develops imitation. Many parents are not communicating with your baby, do not pay attention to the development of his pronunciation skills. This often causes dyslalia, because in this situation it is difficult to expect the spontaneous appearance of a child right speech. Delay the formation of pronunciation skills inherent in their native language, often leads to the development and consolidation of the defective zvukoproiznoshenija.
Separately isolated age reasons dyslalia in preschool children. In this case, the speech defect is the physiological norm, and does not require correction. However, to avoid the formation of pathological pronunciation skills necessary to be attentive to language development of young children. It is in the preschool years lays the foundation of communication features that are crucial for all subsequent life.
Depending on the reasons that contribute to speech defects, there may be two basic forms dyslalia: mechanical and functional. The first of these may occur at any age in the presence of organic changes in the speech unit. Thus pronunciations disorders in children often associated with disorders such language as truncated bridle or with overbite, i.e. aberrant jaws positioned relative to each other. Cacology adults may be due to age-related changes in the first place, the absence of teeth.
The functional form dyslalia has several varieties. This division is due to the release of the most significant features of speech disorders, speech therapy that allows you to make the impact more focused. In total there are three forms of functional dyslalia:
- Acoustic phonemic. At the heart of this failure is a violation of speech hearing, so that there is a mixture of sounds with similar acoustic features, such as voicing, voicelessness. In some cases inferior perception of sounds to the ear causes them to pass into the speech;
- Articulatory-phonemic. This form dyslalia arises in case of insufficient assimilation correct positions of the vocal apparatus in the pronunciation of certain sounds, thereby mixing them;
- Articulatory-phonetic. For this type of dyslalia characterized by a distorted pronunciation of sounds caused by incorrect lessons articulation positions.
When dyslalia may fail pronunciation sounds different amounts. If the defect is reproduced one or more belonging to the same group, for example, only whistling defect is considered easy. If disturbed pronunciation of sounds from different groups, indicate the presence of a complex dyslalia. Most often it is a consequence of underdevelopment phonemic perception, that is, speech hearing.
This adjustment difficulties associated not so much with the number of defective spoken sounds, but with enough hard work need to develop their listening. As a rule, phonemic problems are the reason that the elimination of the complex dyslalia requires a fairly long time. Equally important is the age factor.
In adults, deficiency of pronunciation often associated with the formation of wrong articulation positions, while hearing the voice is usually developed well enough. Dyslalia in children, in most cases it is caused by underdeveloped phonemic perception, resulting in a fixed faulty pronunciation of many sounds.
Contrary to popular belief, both simple and complex dyslalia can be eliminated without affecting almost any age. With its mechanical form requires, first and foremost, freedom from defects in the articulation apparatus. If it is quite difficult to achieve, for example, malocclusion, correction of speech defects, however, is readily available. Normalized acoustic sound effect can be obtained in different ways.
Incorrect pronunciation occurs in people of all ages. In most cases, the sources of this problem are in early childhood. Kids, owing to well-understood objective reasons, can not decide for yourself how to talk to them throughout his later life. In this regard, it is often the parents are to blame for the emergence and consolidation of the children of such speech disorders as dyslalia. But with defects zvukoproiznoshenija quite manageable, it is enough time to see a speech therapist.